BUS402: Unit 2 Discussion Questions

bus402

#1

Consider responding to the following questions by posting your response on the course discussion board for BUS402. You may also respond to other students’ posts.

  1. What is a project life cycle? Please describe each project phase with one example.
  2. Have you experienced any project failure as a project manager? If so, what lessons have you learned? If not, what successful experiences would you like to share? If you haven’t had any project management experience, please answer this question based on the course content so far.
  3. According to subunit 2.6, what key project management processes and knowledge areas are covered in PMBOK (2008)? How do they represent your real-world project management experiences?
  4. As a project manager, what techniques, tools, or strategies can you use to effectively manage project risks?

#3

1.“PROJECT LIFE CYCLE"This is when a standard project typically has the following four major phases(each with its own agenda of tasks and issues):initiating,planning,implementation,and closure.Taken together,these phases represent the path a project takes from the beginning to its end.
a.INITIATION PHASE:This is the first phase during the initiation phase of the project represents the
activities associated with starting-up the project Eg. the project manager focused on defining and finding a
project leadership team with the knowledge skills and experience to manage a large complex project in a
remote area of the globe.
b.PLANNING PHASE:The planning phase,which PMI labels"organizing and preparing”,includes the
i.development of more detailed schedules and a budget
ii.developing detailed staffing,procurement, and
iii.project controls plan Eg. the project team developed and integrated project schedule that
coordinated the activities of the of the design,procurement, and construction team
c.EXECUTION PHASE:The execution phase,labeled by PMI as"carrying out the work"includes the major
activities needed to accomplish the work of the project. Eg. On a construction project,this would
include the design and construction activities.
d.CLOSEOUT:The closeout phase or using PMI;s nomenclature,“closing of the project”-represents the
final stage of the a project.Project staff is transferred off the projects documents are archived,and the
final few items or punch list is completed. Eg .This includes turning over the newly constructed plant to
the operations team of the client.

  1. WHAT LEADS TO PROJECT FAILURE WHAT LEADS TO SUCCESSFUL PROJECT
    I.poor project specification I.improved customer relations
    ii.unrealistic timescales ii.lower cost
    iii.timescales that are too long iii.higher worker morale
    iv.inappropriate staff iv.shorter development times
    v.insufficient involvement by senior management v.higher quality and dependability
    vi.failure to manage user expectations
    vii.failure to manage the change required

3.A.THE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES ARE AS FOLLOWS:
CONCEPT—DEVELOP----EXECUTION----FINISH
However they are can also be repeated across phases of the project as well they are
a.initiating b.planning c.executing d.monitoring and controlling e.closing
B The knowledge areas are the areas identified by PMBOK as being necessary for a project manager to
understand and be able to manage projects effectively
(a).integration (b).scope ©.time (d).cost (e).quality (f).human resources (g).communication (h).risk
(i).procurement

4.RISK MANAGEMENT:This focused on seeking to increase the likelihood and impact of positive events
and reduce the likelihood and impact of negative events.There are six processes that are outlined for
managing risks in a project.
a.planning risk management b.identifying risks c.performing qualitative assessment
d.performing quantitative analysis e.planning responses f.monitoring and control risk.


#4

1. What is a project life cycle? Please describe each project phase with one example.

A standard project typically has the four major phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution, and Closure. Taken together, these phases represent the path a project takes from the beginning to its end and are generally referred to as the “project life cycle.”

Initiation: The initiation phase, which PMI calls “starting the project,” includes activities such as holding alignment and kickoff meetings, identifying the project team, developing the resources needed to develop the project plan, and identifying and acquiring the project management infrastructure.

Planning: The planning phase, which PMI calls “organizing and preparing,” includes developing detailed staffing, procurement, and project controls plans.

Execution: The execution phase, which PMI calls “carrying out the work,” includes the major activities needed to accomplish the work of the project.

Closure: The closeout phase, which PMI calls “closing of the project,” includes transferring staff, archiving documents, closing offices, completing punch list tasks, and turning over the results of the project to the client.

2. Have you experienced any project failure as a project manager? If so, what lessons have you learned? If not, what successful experiences would you like to share? If you haven’t had any project management experience, please answer this question based on the course content so far.

No. At the time of project kickoff meetings, we clearly discuss the project scope and action plan and in execution phase we forecast the risk.

3. According to subunit 2.6, what key project management processes and knowledge areas are covered in PMBOK (2008)? How do they represent your real-world project management experiences?

  1. Project Integration Management
  2. Project Scope Management
  3. Project Time Management
  4. Project Cost Management
  5. Project Quality Management
  6. Project Human Resource Management
  7. Project Communications Management
  8. Project Risk Management
  9. Project Procurement Management
  10. Project Stakeholder Management.

In the real time project, all the above need to establish and maintain.

4.As a project manager, what techniques, tools, or strategies can you use to effectively manage project risks?

I am having very little experience as a project manager. However I learn the knowledge by this course and I express my point from learning only.

There are four basic ways to handle a risk.

Avoid: The best thing you can do with a risk is avoid it. If you can prevent it from happening, it definitely won’t hurt your project. The easiest way to avoid this risk is to walk away from the cliff, but that may not be an option on this project.

Mitigate: If you can’t avoid the risk, you can mitigate it. This means taking some sort of action that will cause it to do as little damage to your project as possible.

Transfer: One effective way to deal with a risk is to pay someone else to accept it for you. The most common way to do this is to buy insurance.

Accept: When you can’t avoid, mitigate, or transfer a risk, then you have to accept it. But even when you accept a risk, at least you’ve looked at the alternatives and you know what will happen if it occurs. If you can’t avoid the risk, and there’s nothing you can do to reduce its impact, then accepting it is your only choice.


#5

1. What is a project life cycle? The Project Life Cycle refers to the four-step process that is followed by nearly all project managers when moving through stages of project completion.

The Project Phases are;

The Initiation Phase

Which PMI calls “starting the project,” includes activities such as holding alignment and kickoff meetings, identifying the project team, developing the resources needed to develop the project plan, and identifying and acquiring the project management infrastructure.

The planning phase,

which PMI calls “organizing and preparing,” includes developing detailed staffing, procurement, and project controls plans.

The execution phase,

which PMI calls “carrying out the work,” includes the major activities needed to accomplish the work of the project.

The closeout phase,

which PMI calls “closing of the project,” includes transferring staff, archiving documents, closing offices, completing punch list tasks, and turning over the results of the project to the client.

2.Have you experienced any project failure as a project manager? If so, what lessons have you learned? If not, what successful experiences would you like to share?
Yes! I’ve experience a project failure as a manager of a youth group that actually started a project on maintenance damaged roads in our community, and the reason was that, there was Inappropriate staff and also Insufficient involvement by senior management leading to some staffs not adherent to time leading to the failure of the project.

3. According to subunit 2.6, what key project management processes and knowledge areas are covered in PMBOK (2008)? How do they represent your real-world project management experiences?

According to subunit 2.6, The PMBOK (2008), covers the areas of Risk Management which includes creating a risk management plan, identifying risks, performing risk analysis, also creating a plan to respond to risk and then monitoring/controlling the risks.


#6

1. What is a project life cycle? Please describe each project phase with one example.

A standard project typically has the four major phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution, and Closure. Taken together, these phases represent the path a project takes from the beginning to its end and are generally referred to as the “project life cycle.”

Initiation: The initiation phase, which PMI calls “starting the project,” includes activities such as holding alignment and kickoff meetings, identifying the project team, developing the resources needed to develop the project plan, and identifying and acquiring the project management infrastructure.

Planning: The planning phase, which PMI calls “organizing and preparing,” includes developing detailed staffing, procurement, and project controls plans.

Execution: The execution phase, which PMI calls “carrying out the work,” includes the major activities needed to accomplish the work of the project.

Closure: The closeout phase, which PMI calls “closing of the project,” includes transferring staff, archiving documents, closing offices, completing punch list tasks, and turning over the results of the project to the client.

2. Have you experienced any project failure as a project manager? If so, what lessons have you learned? If not, what successful experiences would you like to share? If you haven’t had any project management experience, please answer this question based on the course content so far.
Yes, There was a project I managed with my members being unresponsive, we got behind the schedule of deliverables. What I’ve learned in that failure is to be conscious to the time and your members. It is hard to meet the schedule of different people.

3. According to subunit 2.6, what key project management processes and knowledge areas are covered in PMBOK (2008)? How do they represent your real-world project management experiences?

  1. Project Integration Management
  2. Project Scope Management
  3. Project Time Management
  4. Project Cost Management
  5. Project Quality Management
  6. Project Human Resource Management
  7. Project Communications Management
  8. Project Risk Management
  9. Project Procurement Management
  10. Project Stakeholder Management

4.As a project manager, what techniques, tools, or strategies can you use to effectively manage project risks?
As a project manager, we must always be oriented to every factor that may affect the project. We must use tools to make our development or execution optimized. In terms of keeping track with the project’s schedule, a great tool that I can suggest is the gantt chart. It is an organized way to plan project target dates.


#7
  1. Project Life Cycle
    There are 4 project phases:
    Initiating
    Planning
    Execution
    Closure
    Every phase may be decomposed into several sub-phases (iterations) and may include sub-projects.

  2. The reasons why projects may fail or face with serious problems.
    There are a large number of possible issues that may injure the project or even entire business, or company reputation.
    Pour marketing research. The product vision includes assumptions that are not validated by customers relying merely on the onsite expert vision.
    Lack of stakeholder management. Identifying the key stakeholders in the initial phase and managing them throughout the project lifecycle is a critical process. The key stakeholders may discontinue the project at any phase, block it or request for a change in the imlementation phase argueing that he/she has not been involved in the product vision and his/her request is a must-have because of some reasons.
    Lack of customer involvement throughout the project life. Unlike other stakeholders cutomers including potential ones must be considered separetely since these are customers who pay for your profuct or service. It is essential to get the customer feedback as early as poddible so that the project team may take preventive and correctivev actions. Some projects team deliver totally different what customers expected even threre was some initial informal feedback on customer expectation.
    Bad planning. Some inexpirenced project managers plan their projects on very high level in the iniitial phases under pressure of the higher management Rough and «off-the-cuff» planning may cause a further project failure. The more descreat iterations, the more clear objectives and acceptance criteria the higher likelihood of further project success.
    Lack of quality management. It might be well that a project team would release a product that does not meet industry standarts or have critical defects that cannot be accepeted by a customer due to pour quality management.
    Pour execution and project control. If the project management cannot say what his/her team is doing at the given time, most probably a project is out of control. Smart and timely reporting, key perfomance indicators, tool and techniques may help to avoid a total failure of the project.
    Pour communications. Inproper, and vague questions during customer interview, or late or inpolite responses could be a reason of terminating the relationship with your customer. The negotioation process is really important and must be conducted by professionals. It might be well that tĥe opponents, stakeholders do not provide the feedback in timely manner which may cause delays in your project. It is a matter of project team and the whole orgsnization to build a correct a communication process and culture inside an organization and with external partners.
    The team must create a culture when noone would be afraid of sharing the problems that block their current project tasks. Slow reactions on «showstoppers» causes project delays.
    Lack of subject matter expertice
     Underestimated the project complexity
     Unknown risks. It concerns both internal and external risks. The more severe threat goes from outside, when project manager has minor authority to mitigate the risk. For example political, legal, ecological or economical, or from partner/vendor side.
    Pour change managent. Initially unplanned requests for a change in the project scope may cause project delays, introducing new defects and get your project out of the budget. Project team must build mature change management process so that every single change to be processeed within this process in timely manner (rejected, accepted or postponed for the future project).

  3. Key project management processes and knowledge area.
    i. Project Integration Management
    ii. Project Scope Management
    iii. Project Time Management
    iv. Project Cost Management
    v. Project Quality Management
    vi. Project Human Resource Management
    vii. Project Communications Management
    viii. Project Risk Management
    ix. Project Procurement Management
    x. Project Stakeholder Management

  4. Risk management
    There are 3 steps to manage the risks - identifing, evaluating and managing. The most difficult part is to identify the risk and define the probability. There are different ways to identify the risks – past project expirience/historical data, expert contribution, industry practices etc. There are different strategies to manage the risks
    o accept the risk, prepare mitigation and contingency plan.
    o share the risk
    o transfer/delegate the risk to another organization.
    o accept the risk, do nothing if the risk has very low impact or/and very low probability.
    o declined the risk, find more reliable alternatives


#8
  1. What is a project life cycle? Please describe each project phase with one example.
    There are four phase in a project life cycle, Initiating, Planning, Execution and Closure. Each phase have activities associated with that phase and are important to the overall success of a project. Before each phase can begin the previous stage must be completed.
    In the Initiation phase, all activities necessary to start a project are undertaken. Some of these activities include a project kick-off meeting, identifying the Project Manager and team, and the setting up of a project office space including equipment required to complete work such as computers and other communication equipment. In addition to the basic steps of setting up of the project office, an analysis of the problem and possible solutions are determined, a business case is created to define the problem or opportunity. A business analysis is created to see if the project has a benefit to the business, things such as a benefit analysis are completed including a look at the cost benefit with a feasibility study. In the end of the Initiation phase a clear objective is created and signed off by the project sponsor. This objective must be not only qualitative but quantitative to ensure the goal is achievable and realistic.
    Once the first phase is signed off on by the project sponsor as being worthwhile, the second phase can begin. This phase is the Planning phase and is the heart of the project, it details where the project is going and how it will get there. In this phase a more detailed schedule and budget are created along with risk management plan, quality plan and a communication plan. Staffing and procurement controls are also planned. The scope of the project is written up to document all deliverables and outcomes required to complete the project.
    Also in the planning a stage a more detailed objective is determined as part of the scope, it is important to be sure the goal is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic and Timely). The scope will include any technical, user, business regulatory, functional and nonfunctional requirements the project needs to be a success. It is important in this phase to be sure all stakeholders come to a consensus on the project scope or the project won’t be successful. Once the planning phase is complete and all stakeholders understand and have signed off on all the requirements the fourth phase can begin.
    The fourth phase is the Initiation Phase. This phase is when the actual work of the project is completed, when the plan is put into action. Based on the schedule created in the Initiation phase, deliverables and outcomes are produced. In this phase, as in others but more so, it is important to maintain control and communication. Progress must be continually monitored and adjustments to the schedule and budget must be recorded. It is important that status reports anticipate end points in terms of cost, schedule and quality of deliverable. Upon the completion of this phase, comes the final phase Closure.
    Closure is the fourth and final phase and just as important as the Initiation phase. It is during this phase that all deliverable are handed over to the client after punch list items are planned for and completed. All procurement and supplier contracts are closed, the project office is dismantled and team members return to their home offices after a lessons learned meeting is completed.

  2. Have you experienced any project failure as a project manager? If so, what lessons have you learned? If not, what successful experiences would you like to share? If you haven’t had any project management experience, please answer this question based on the course content so far.
    I am fairly new to a formal project management system, though in some ways I have been involved with many projects. I wouldn’t say that any of my previous projects failed, but I have witnessed problems in projects being managed by other Project Managers. I think some of the biggest issues I have seen have been in the lack of planning and communication among all stakeholders of a plan.
    One particular project I was involved in was where I worked as a site supervisor on the building of a house in five days for Habitat for Humanity. The persons in charge of planning did not communicate well with one another, the need for volunteers was underestimated, risk management was non-existent and those who work within our offices as support staff, who were expected to assist that week, were not made fully aware of their roles in assisting the construction staff.
    On the first day, for example, not only did the second shift of volunteers not show up, but it torrentially poured rain setting the whole build back five hours and there was no plan in place to address these potentials. The senior volunteers were not evenly spread among the two build shifts for the whole week, though work was expected to continue in the afternoons with little to no extra hands to guide the unskilled volunteers and though several stayed for the entire day, by the end of the week it became too much for them due to their ages.
    I felt that as a supervisor of the 400+ volunteers, I should have been included throughout the “planning” of the whole project so that my input as a stakeholder could be considered and I could buy off on the whole plan as well as the other stakeholders involved in the project.

  3. According to subunit 2.6, what key project management processes and knowledge areas are covered in PMBOK (2008)? How do they represent your real-world project management experiences?
    There are ten key knowledge areas covered by the Project Management Book of Knowledge they are: Project Integration Management • Project Scope Management • Project Time Management • Project Cost Management • Project Quality Management • Project Human Resources Management • Project Communications Management • Project Risk Management • Project Procurement Management and • Project Stakeholder Management.
    I currently am not a Project Manager, as the organization I work for do not use a formal Project Management system but I am aware of how I make use of many of the skills required for each of the knowledge areas. For example, my construction manager creates a scope of work and budget for each of the houses we will be rehabbing. It is my responsibility to remain within the budget, though honestly, I have yet to be included in the planning for this, not truly made aware of the actual budgets for each, with procurement of supplies and subcontractors.
    It is important to be aware of the potential risks for each build day, weather could prevent roofing for example, so a second activity needs to be planned for should weather prevent volunteers from working on the roof. We currently are working on a job, where though normally my manager roughly plans for about six months to complete a rehab, our director has moved up the schedule to try to have it complete in less than four months, so time management and compressing of the schedule have become important to ensure we get the project done with the quality work that is expected in a shorter amount of time, luckily this doesn’t mean for us paying overtime, because our laborers are volunteers, but it requires human resource management just the same to ensure volunteers are focused and on task, and provided with the guidance they need in order to get that day’s tasks completed for a subcontractor to come in and do their work.
    And in the end, I have to be sure I am able to engage all the stakeholders in the project from my senior volunteers who are out three days a week with us, to the homebuyer and communicating our needs to everyone within the office who work in support of our mission.

  4. As a project manager, what techniques, tools, or strategies can you use to effectively manage project risks?
    The most important part of risk management is planning for it, particularly in construction and even more so in a non-profit field such as I am in that rely on volunteer labor. Being aware of the transient nature of weather, for example is very important. You can plan to do work outside in the dead of winter but if the volunteers signed up to work that week can’t tolerate cold, or don’t show up you must plan for this. It is important to be aware of the potential risks to the budget, the water lines may all need to be replaced once really you get into looking at them, or you may find one morning someone has stolen the battery of your work vehicle and you won’t get out on site on time.
    It is important to anticipate and plan for all possible risks and decide how they will be handled. Some weather it’s just not possible to work in, so you’ll have to accept, if it is snowing, a build day will be cancelled, but you can possibly mitigate rain’s impact by planning a different activity that still can be done inside, without proper planning and being aware of all potential risks no matter of budget and schedule planning will help assist you if you find inside the walls of a home are completely rotted out, if you don’t have some contingency in the budget to plan for this.