Academy Home | Student Dashboard

Compare Rhetorical Appeals

In this practice exercise, write an essay of 500 to 750 words that examines the use of the rhetorical appeals in the two sources you read about the Statue of Liberty: Emma Lazarus’ “The New Colossus” and Dan Sanchez’s “Mass Producing Huddled Masses”.

Your essay should address these questions:

  1. Which work uses rhetorical strategies more effectively?
  2. Which rhetorical strategy is more powerful in terms of supporting the author’s claim or main idea?

Support your argument with specific examples from each work.

Investigation of The New Colossus

The New Colossus is known as a Petrarchan work, a structure utilized by Petrarch, 14 lines in length altogether, made up of an octave, 8 lines, and a sestet, 6 lines.

The rhyme plot is as per the following: abbaabba + cdcdcd. Every one of the rhymes are full, for instance: acclaim/fire/name/casing and land/stand/hand/direction.

There is frequently a ‘turn’ after eight lines, the last six lines being either a contort or advancement of the principle subject. In this way, from line 9 as far as possible, after eight early on lines, embodiment dominates - the statue wakes up and begins to talk.

“Keep, antiquated grounds, your celebrated pageantry!” cries she

Generally speaking, predictable rhyming wins (five burdens for every line inside ten syllables) which sets a relentless rhythm for the peruser, while enjambment happens at lines 3,4,5,6,7 and 9 permitting a stream into the accompanying punctuated line.

Giving a voice to the Mother of Exiles fortifies that those landing in America just because are by and by invited, each and everybody

Line by Line Analysis

Line 1 - the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, supposedly remained over the harbor entrance at the island of Rhodes, and was a statue of the Sun god Helios, an image of opportunity.

Line 2 - this statue is said to have been 100 foot high and straddled over the passageway.

Line 3 - rather than the first Colossus, the enhanced one stands at the entryways - note the symbolism here of waves washing the doors as nightfall washes in a brilliant light.

Line 4 - and the statue will be that of an extraordinary lady holding a guide of light.

Line 5 - such an incredible, characteristic vitality source - enough to illuminate the sky.

Line 6-8 - she will ensure and sustain, her enticing warmth will spread over the world and she will take care of all who show up. The air-connect is probably going to be Brooklyn Bridge, the two urban areas New York and Jersey.

Line 9-14 - she needs the old nations to be glad for their history however those urgent workers escaping strife and destitution she will take care of, give them a home and safe house; their fates will be guaranteed. Vomited reject is a term that mirrors the feeling of misuse of human life. Note the spelling of tost in whirlwind tost (happens in MacBeth, Act1, scene3) however it can likewise be spelled hurled - whirlwind hurled - hit by storms.

Further Analysis

Inward rhymes and other idyllic gadgets add to the surface and extravagance of this poem. For instance, note the similar sounding word usage and sound similarity in line 3:

…ocean washed,sunset doors will stand

furthermore, again in line 5:

Is the detained lightning,

furthermore, line 7:

Gleams overall welcome;

For the peruser and audience, this all assists with keeping up enthusiasm for sound and significance. There is a unique music made in lines 11 and 12:

Your crouched masses longing to inhale free,

The pitiful reject of your overflowing shore.

The iambics and the differentiating vowel sounds join and interweave to make a kind of wave-like movement, with echoes.

This is a piece of fire and water, basically rich, however the predominant topic is that of light, symbolized in the light and fire, which brings brilliant chances and the plausibility of another beginning throughout everyday life.

We need to recall that this lyric was written in 1883, when America was youthful, new and needing new life-blood from everywhere throughout the world. America opened her ways to the individuals who were evaded by their nations of origin, to the individuals who needed a superior life.

Since the etching of The New Colossus, America has assimilated a huge number of foreigners is as yet drawing in numerous who look for the fantasy. The message in this very much developed piece is certain and inviting, however what does the future hold for the Mother of Exiles?


Rhetorical devices help you make points more effectively, and help people understand you better. In this article, I’ll be covering some important rhetorical devices so you can improve your own writing!

Rhetoric is the art of effective communication; if you communicate with others at all, rhetorical devices are your friends! .

It’s the power of words, you can say of lips but can dominate e.g body , all personal you are listening to you One word can change to you.

You need to involve the educational research on your topic to find several solutions to the existing problem. It shouldn’t be too wordy or complicated. Proceed to this part after the moment you stated your thesis; having done it, you may move to the analysis of the topic. Use all possible strategies to support your idea in the best way possible.

At first gaze, these terms sound like a conjuration in a magic story.

Nevertheless, they are the major ingredients of persuasion created by Aristotle and know for centuries of the mankind history! Many years ago, Aristotle discussed these three terms in his well-known book Rhetoric. He considered them to be the primary persuasive strategies that authors should use in their papers.

This poem was written as a donation to an auction of art and literary works[3] conducted by the “Art Loan Fund Exhibition in Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund for the Statue of Liberty” to raise money for the pedestal’s construction

1 Like

In comparing Emma Lazarus’ “The New Colossus” and Dan Sanchez’s Mass-Producing Huddled masses, I found the piece by Dan Sanchez used the rhetorical strategy of Ethos, Pathos, Logos and Kairos more effectively.

Emma Lazarus’ “The New Colossus” is very effective at stirring up emotions for the poor, oppressed immigrants from Europe that were stuck in their socio-economic status by the class structure at that time. The rich tend to stay rich while the poor tend to stay poor. Her depiction of The Statue of Liberty with her beacon of light and her soft eyes and kind face as maternal and nurturing in contrast to famous statues of the past which were masculine, hard, conquering and intimidating is very a very effective Pathos. She continues to use Pathos in depicting the Statue of Liberty as welcoming, hopeful and open-armed and specifically in the line “cries she With silent lips, “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

I found Dan Sanchez’s piece to be extremely emotional. It stirred up many emotions and sent me on a research trail to learn more about the claims he was making. It provoked anger and disgust with the United States for the chaos it has created around the world and in very stark contrast to the imagery in Emma Lazarus’ sonnet, it portrays the US as a tyrannical bully, creating destruction everywhere and picking on poor innocents with no compassion or conscience.

The fact that the poem “The New Colossus” is printed on a plaque on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty and is very well known add a strong element of ethos. However, outside of this piece, and although Emma Lazarus was an accomplished poet, I am not aware that she is very well known for any other pieces and is not an expert on the particular subject matter.

In the writing “Mass-Producing Huddled Masses” the author provides several historical facts and statistics which provides ethos. I was inspired to go and research the claims Dan Sanchez is making and to learn more about the wars he is referring to and the resulting refugee crisis’ that ensued. His claims are credible and based on true events.

In his piece, Dan Sanchez begins by talking about Emma Lazaruz’s sonnet but goes on to state “Unfortunately this ideal has never been much more than a distant aspiration. From its earliest days, the American Colossus never hesitated to tread upon the Blacks and Indians it found underfoot.” It is widely known to be true that we came to this country and simply took the land from the American Indian and that this country was built, to a large extent, by slave labor.

“Mass-Producing Huddled Masses” has a strong appeal to Logos in that it cites many examples to back up the author’s viewpoint such as stating that after the Iraqi war “Many of these displaced persons sought refuge in Syria. At its 2007 peak, Syria had received 1.5 million Iraqi refugees, on top of the 540,000 Palestinian refugees it already hosted.” and after the Syrian uprising, which was largely aided by US weapons “Now over 11 million Syrians (more than half its total pre-war population) have been displaced.

“The New Colossus” is primarily a description of the features of the Statue of Liberty and what the author believes she stands for. There aren’t any specific facts or statistics involved. The Logos comes primarily from the contrasting imagery between the Statue of Liberty and the Colossus of Rhodes.

Both were very relevant at the time they were written and are very relevant today and have a kairos appeal.


You did great! I just read both sections tonight and am having a hard time understanding (logos), but I did sense some type of “sarcasm” (my pathos) in the one from Dan Sanchez, and definitely appealed to me, especially in this election year 2020 (kairos)… I’m not really a fan of these types of writing (literary criticism?)… but I will attempt the assignment nevertheless.

1 Like
  1. Which work uses rhetorical strategies more effectively?

I believe that Emma Lazarus’ sonnet is more effective in appealing to the ethos, logos, pathos and Kairos rhetoric. She uses all four strategies to complement each other. In the statement “Give me your tired, your poor…”, her purpose was clear, that of to gather the oppressed, neglected, unwanted. The audience was two-fold: the original lands where the immigrants came from “Send these…”, as well as the immigrants who are now moving on from said lands who will eventually be aware of her message, which support the logos claim. Her tone was one of frustration to the rich and powerful, but sounding as a protector to the “huddled masses yearning to breathe free”, thereby showing a strong appeal of pathos. Lastly, I noticed that the writer and the statue is one both of a woman. The Kairos is evident as her message reinforces the message of hope and freedom, but still instilling a refuge through being the “Mother of Exiles”.

  1. Which rhetorical strategy is more powerful in terms of supporting the author’s claim or main idea?

I had to take into consideration the timing of both Emma Lazarus’ sonnet, as well as Dan Sanchez’s publication. Lazarus wrote and spoke almost in real time, back in the 1800s. The tone of the sonnet may have been the perfect complement to that time and era. In contrast, Sanchez published his interpretation more than 100 years later, in 2015. These are completely different times and contexts…. Both interprations are true, but on very different environment space (kairos). By the time Mr. Sanchez had written his publication, the “strength” of the new colossus had manifested itself through major advances in industrialization and technology, strengthened by the “conquering limbs” (alliances) with so much of the world.

Dan Sanchez reflects a completely different analysis, and I can only imagine what Ms. Lazarus really thinks of such a high criticism of her work. What once was a symbol of hope and freedom, has turned the “beacon-hand, world-wide welcomer” into a top persecutor. Was not this type of oppression the very type of behavior the immigrants were escaping from? Has the New Colossus become the “storied pomp”?

I am not a great connoisseur of poetry and a fan of politics. Therefore, before comparing the two proposed passages, I turned to the history of the creation of the statue itself, which threw additional light on the very topic.

So, historically, the Statue of Liberty was conceived and made in France, as a gift to America for the centenary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The author of the project was the sculptor Bartholdi, and the performer is the well-knowing Eiffel. The gift, that, actually, was finished with 11 years delay due to underfunding, became the main American symbol, embodying the freedom and independence of the entire American people. The key word is “entire”.

There are some Interesting facts about the statue. The crown on the head of the American statue has seven rays, each of which symbolizes 7 continents and 7 oceans. The windows in the crown (25 pieces) symbolize 25 natural minerals, and the toga of the statue – the Republics of Rome and Ancient Greece. The torch, which is held in the hand, is a symbol of Enlightenment, and in the second hand it symbolizes the Book of Laws. At the feet of the statue lie broken chains, identifying victory over tyranny. And here we will especially highlight the last phrase.

Thus, we have come to the discussion itself. Let’s turn first to Emma Lazarus. “Emprised lightning”, “mother of exiles”, “beacon-handed”. All these are examples of an elevated and exalted style of writing that appeals exclusively to the feelings and emotions of the reader. Just like the phrases “your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free” or “send these, the homeless tempest-tost to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door”. You do not need to be a professor of literature or a well-known critic to not distinguish in these words and phrases an ode, written, however, in honor of what. Statues? or Freedom? If we analyze the verse from a rhetorical point of view, we see a clear bias towards pathos. Or more precisely, the complete absence of ethos and logos. In addition, the work does not contain any conclusions at all. The reader either cries ecstatically or grins ironically.

Now let’s turn to Dan Sanchez. This article makes a very definite impression, and the facts presented do not leave the reader indifferent. The author logically and coherently moves from the monumentalism of antiquity to modernity, using the methods of comparison and contrast. So it was conceived when the very erection of the statue was supposed to be that “The new country would not bestride the world like a colossus, but would, like its great statue, stand straight and stable, holding aloft an illuminating torch: a welcoming beacon of hope and freedom.” But, as the author continues, “Unfortunately this ideal has never been much more than a distant aspiration. From its earliest days, the American Colossus never hesitated to tread upon the Blacks and Indians it found underfoot.”

Terrible facts and figures in the words of the author have led to the fact that “now it’ is not offering refuge, but making refugees”.

The policy of force pressure, leading to constant incitement and unleashing wars is “not only murderously destructive, but colossally expensive.” In conclusion, the author, recalling the fate of the colossus of Rhodes, calls: “We must take our country off the precarious footing of empire, and place it on the firm foundation of liberty. Then, like the stable statue in New York Harbor, we will truly be a beacon to the world.”

I don’t know what motivated the author to create this article. But the arguments and facts presented by him are not only reliable, but also convincing, and even motivating. This is not a simple list of facts or an emotional speech, but a well-balanced appeal from the point of view of rhetoric to the citizens of a country conceived as a stronghold of freedom and democracy, a land where they do not take away, but give.

At the end I would like to step aside from analyzing and end with a dialogue from the cult Soviet film “Brother-2”, which is well known to American viewers.

"- What’s mean “how are you” in English?

  • How is it going, how are things.

  • And what, everyone is interested in how I’m doing?

  • No, not interested.

-Then why do they ask?

  • Just like that. In America, everything is “just like that”, except for money."
1 Like

An effective use of rhetorical strategies means striking a balance between the elements of rhetoric -the pathos (emotions), ethos (author’s credibility) and logos (logical appeal)- and also the Kairos (appropriate timing) to create an effective argument.

Comparing the two sources, Dan Sanchez’s article, “Mass-Producing Huddled Masses” is more effective as it combines majorly logos e.g. “…the American Colossus followed them even there, heavily funneling weapons and other support into an uprising in Syria…” and pathos e.g. “Tens of millions consigned to utter desperation: severed from their homes, communities,…” , also ethos e.g. by demonstration of knowledge- “This is a reference to the Colossus of Rhodes, a statue long thought to…Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.”, also by citing “Within a few years, as Farrah Hassen put it,…” and kairos by the placement of anecdotes at the beginning to provide a background for his argument and followed up with the paragraph "Unfortunately this ideal has never been much more than a distant aspiration. " to state his argument and subsequently his evidences to back it up.

But Emma Lazarus in the poem “The New Colossus”, tends largely towards the utilisation of pathos e.g. “…Mother of Exiles”, “From her beacon-hand | Glows world-wide welcome…”. The poem started with a disclaimer- “Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame…” which seems to be an appeal to ethos, showing knowledge of history. Although the message of the poem, her expectations of the country, was well passed.

Kairos is a strong strategy used by Dan to support his claims. Apart from the fact that the article was published at a time when the topic would have been one of those discussed in public, he successfully stated his claim in an effective position, mid way into the article - “Unfortunately this ideal has never been much more…” , followed up with an appeal to pathos- “…never hesitated to tread upon the Blacks and Indians it found underfoot.” and then logos- " …1898 cartoon called “Colossus of the Pacific” aptly depicted Uncle Sam striding from California coast to the Philippine Islands."

Thereafter, his claim was restated - “And the actual “New Colossus” would eventually bestride more of the globe than any before it.” And went on to provide varying degree of evidences to support his claim - “…American Colossus followed them even there, heavily funneling weapons…”, “The American Colossus also: has waged the longest war …”.

He soon switched back to appeal to pathos to conclude the article with a call to action- “…it will collapse under its own weight, and bury us all…” , “We must take our country off the precarious footing of empire, and place it on the firm foundation of liberty…”.

The manner of placement of each point was used to drive home the main idea of the article.