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PHIL102: Argument Analysis

Try to formulate examples for three important patterns of argument: modus ponens, modus tollens, and reductio. Then, for the following argument sent to a newspaper by a reader responding to an article claiming that Shakespeare was Italian, identify the argument’s main conclusion and spell out the argument’s premises.

“So Shakespeare was an Italian, because almost half of his plays are set in Italy. Almost all of Isaac Asimov’s novels are set in outer space – does that mean he was a Martian?” – Graham Simpson

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I think just because some one uses a particular setting for a book or play dont make them from that culture or race my boyfriend pretends to be irish sometimes but that doesnt mean he is in fact he is not. shakespeare my have liked italy like i like texas. i am not from texas i am from malden massachusetts. Anne rice writes about vampires and stuff doesnt mean sheis a vampire or even likes them all though she might. you dont know about know about a person unless they were alive back then and there was a autobiography written about him.

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Shakespeare’s majority of plays were set in Italy. He spent most of his time in Italy. Therefore he is an Italian.

Shakespeare’s majority of plays were set in Italy. This could mean that he understand the Italian culture very well through sharing ancient roots from Italy as he was born there or through popularity.

However, Shakespeare might have more interest in Italy because his audience in Italy are better percievers of the message he conveys in his plays. His plays must be rooted back from Italian ancient times which takes him back to Italy more than any other place.

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Since understudies are to procure an ability, the structure of the Reason! subject more intently takes after a research facility or arithmetic class than a customary way of thinking class. Like learning variable based math, basic reasoning requires practice as opposed to only investigation or thought. I accept that addressing without anyone else does minimal great.
Thus, the week by week dialog segments are hands-on instructional exercises. Melbourne University has some extraordinarily pleasant electronic study halls, so understudies can work in gatherings at PC stations, and afterward thus venture their maps up before the entire instructional exercise for dialog. Every module has a lot of training practices with answers, and afterward a lot of practices for schoolwork. Since there are four modules, understudies need to turn in schoolwork about like clockwork. That schoolwork is normally 6 inquiries, ostensibly requiring long stretches of work,9 not including the time spent on the training works out. (Neil requires an contention map every week, delivered toward the start of the instructional exercise.) Each module moreover has an in-class test which occurs after the last talk for that module. The objective is both to give a lot of training and a lot of criticism. Specifically, Quality Practice is, as per (van Gelder, 2001), practice which is:

• Motivated — the understudy ought to be intentionally rehearsing so as to improve abilities
• Guided — the understudy ought to have some method for recognizing what to do straightaway
• Scaffolded — especially in beginning periods, there ought to be structures forestalling wrong action
• Graduated — undertakings ought to slowly increment in unpredictability
• [Providing] Feedback — the understudy ought to have some method for telling whether
a specific movement was fruitful or fitting The bottleneck, tragically, is input. The evaluating trouble is as of now very high, and thus we had the option to review as it were two (arbitrarily chosen)10 issues from every schoolwork set. I set up the calendar so that understudies turned in schoolwork on Friday of the most recent week for a module, and we had the evaluated schoolwork returned by Monday around early afternoon. Every one of the mentors and I held different office hours Monday and Tuesday, and the test was that Tuesday early evening time during class. We at that point evaluated the tests on Wednesday and examined the test on Thursday. That made for an extreme seven day stretch of evaluating (and test composing!), however at any rate gave quick input to
the understudies. We concluded that quick criticism was significant, in light of the fact that despite the fact that the online materials give a lot of criticism in one sense (particularly the training exercises), understudies the earlier year had grumbled that they needed something more, which means that they were not getting assessments of their schoolwork. The truth of the matter is that most understudies don’t generally test themselves until they need to hand assignments over for a grade.11 In a perfect world, the understudies would get criticism on ALL the schoolwork issues,

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Good reasonable explanation

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I agree with what you have written entirely.

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modus ponens
Because almost half of his plays are set in Italy Shakespeare was an Italian.

modus tollens
If where you are from is based on where most of your work is set in then your work not being set in a particular location must mean you are not from there. Ie. Since almost all of Isaac Asimov’s novels are set in outer space he must not be from anywhere else, but outer space.

reductio
Almost all of Isaac Asimov’s novels are set in outer space, but he is unlikely to be a Martian. Just because almost half of Shakespeare’s plays are set in Italy it doesn’t mean he was Italian.

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Modus Ponens - If the sun is shining where I live then I am happy. The sun is shining where I live so I am happy.

Modus Tollens - If it is raining where I live then I am not happy. It is not raining where I live is I am happy.

Reductio - If it is raining then the ground will be wet. There is a giant tarp covering the earth so the ground will not be wet.

The Shakespeare argument:
Conclusion = Shakespeare was Italian
Isaac Asimov was a Martian
Premises = Almost half of Shakespeare’s plays were
set in Italy
Almost all of Isaac Asimov’s novels are set
in outer space

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Main conclusion. …Shakespeare was italian
Premises…most of his plays were set in italy
Premise …isaac asimov’s novels are set in outer space
Conclusion. …isaac asimov is an astrophile and unlikely not from mars.

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You make a fair point. You only know a person until you’ve either been with them or if they talk about themselves.

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Totally agreeing on this point

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According to me, its not about a person who specifically writes about a specific region, it makes him that place’s inhabitant. And just like that, I like to write about God or The Devil, it doesnt mean I am anyone’s minion or angel. I think it would be too judgemental if you just go and characterize a person’s home or their characteristics based on what they write.

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Premises 1: Almost half of his plays are set in Italy.
Conclusion: Shakespeare was an Italian

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Example are well structured and explained clearly.

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  1. Shakespeare is from Italy and therefore almost all his plays are in Italian as he knows the Italian culture well.
  2. Shakespeare is from Italy therefore his plays are Italian. If he wasn’t from Italy then his plays wouldn’t be Italian.
  3. Since Issac’s novels are about space that doesn’t mean he was a Martian. Similarly Shakespeare’s plays are Italian that doesn’t mean he is from Italy.
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Rightly said

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Agreed

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totally agree with u…!!!

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Totally agree what u said

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Totally agreeing on this point

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