Here are my evaluations of the following arguments:
- God exists, because many people who believe in God go on to have
healthy, happy, and meaningful lives.
Post hoc, ergo proctor hoc fallacy - assuming that because two things occur in time near to each other, one causes the other. There may be all sorts of other reasons for people to be living health etc lives besides a belief in God.
- Bertrand Russell said that objective morality is possible
without God. Russell was an atheist, and we all know that he
slept around and seduced young girls and was nasty to lots of
Ad hominem - attacking the person rather than the argument. Russell’s behaviour is irrelevant to the argument itself.
- Do you want four more years of this person in political office?
Vote for me, Candidate X.
Ad hominem - there is an implied criticism of the character of the other candidate rather than focusing on the quality of candidate X.