Academy Home | Student Dashboard

SOC101: Unit 1 Discussion


#1
  1. Explain how each of the three major theoretical paradigms discussed in this section (structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory) might be used in looking at the issue of inequality and share some examples.

  2. Using the sociological imagination, how might one explain the personal trouble of experiencing an eating disorder?

  3. How can sociological theories be beneficial when studying various groups or institutions within a society? Provide some examples which support your claims.

  4. Why is it so vital to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research? Can you think of a time when ethical guidelines were violated during scientific research? Please share some examples.


How structural functionalism is used at looking at the issue of inequality?
#2

The three major theoretical paradigms could be used to look at inequality by seeing how people from different socioeconomic backgrounds are treated within the public school systems (SIT), seeing what police brutality crimes have been seen between individuals of authority and civilians from different races (CT), and see how communication has evolved between individuals of different races in politics (SInteractionT).

Personal trouble of experiencing an eating disorder would need to be examined through the eye of someone who has actually had a disorder of that type. You would need to study their interpersonal relationships.

Studying groups can definitely help with the study of various groups. You have to have variety to study them in the first place.

Ethical standards must be followed to ensure that all of the subjects are treated equal and fairly.


#3
  1. The three major theoretical paradigms can be used in explaining the issue of equality in the following way:
    a) Structural functionalism: This theory explains how all the functional parts of a society serve a purpose. In order for a society to be successful there has to be a balance of these social institutions. For example, in order for there to be law and order for the individuals of a particular society, government has to exist to regulate laws as well as ensure citizen’s rights.
    b) Symbolic interactionism: This paradigm explains how individuals of a particular group interact among each other.For example, this theory can be used to explore the inequalities in the different groups among teenagers.
    c) Conflict theory: This paradigm can be used to explain capitalists societies, where one group reaps the majority of the benefits and another group is barely surviving. Major aspects of government are controlled by the minority that utilize government and laws to protect their interests.
  2. According to Mills, sociological imagination exists when there is a relationship between and individual’s resent behaviors and past experiences. Patients with eating disorders tend to have issues with control. There is an underlying dissatisfaction and a feelings of loss of control. Starving, overeating or purging is a way to feel more in control of what happens in their life.
  3. Sociological theories assist is exploring interactions between groups as well as the different sub groups that exist within larger groups of individuals. They serve to explain how cultures and communities evolve over time in order to fit the needs of the population. For example, there is increased awareness in gender equality. This is a result of an increase in education and literacy over time. Women’s issues have gained prominence and support over the decades. Sociological theories like symbolic interactionism showcase these success by how individual groups are communicating across gender lines in the 21st century.
  4. Ethics in sociological research is necessary in order to uphold the integrity of the research as well as ensure unbiased results. Failure to uphold ethics in research can result in harm to animals or humans.

#4

Unit 1 Discussion Questions

Structural-Functionism
Inequality can be seen in schools when all parts of a society are not working together. For example, a student’s parents may be of a lower socioeconomical background and have to work more hours to make ends meet. This could mean having less time to help their child succeed in school, causing the child to get poor grades.

Conflict Theory
Conflict Theory is heavily focused on inequality in many aspects of society. For example, some corporations make huge profits while deciding not to supply their hard workers with the health care plans they deserve.

Symbolic Interaction
Inequality can be seen on a smaller, micro scale when it comes to this theory. Some teenagers ascribe important meaning to certain expensive clothing items, like sneakers. If a student from a lower socioeconomic background isn’t able to afford such items, they’re often excluded from the group of more affluent students.

Sociological Imagination is all about putting yourself in someone else’s shoes and using your own experiences to understand what they’re going through and why. A person who is struggling with an eating disorder could have been put under pressure by society’s recent obsession with fitness, losing weight, and going to the gym in stylish athletic clothing. They may have been influenced by the world of fashion and the skinny models that fill every beauty magazine and walk every runway. Each day we are faced with these in-your-face influences and it’s hard to ignore them if we are not satisfied with ourselves and our outward appearance.

The three sociological theories are beneficial because it is important to know a group’s motivation when studying them. It is easier to understand a group’s intentions when you know why, for example, they are protesting Capitalism. From a conflict theory viewpoint, you would be able to study them and know they are fighting for fair wages.
When studying institutions in an inner city from a structural-functionist stance, you may find that there is a lack of dynamic equilibrium. Racism and class struggle still run rampant among specific populations, such as African-Americans and the police force.
On a micro level, symbolic interaction theory would help you understand why individuals deviate from the norm and defy social constructs. Being familiar with this theory would be beneficial when interviewing people in the prison system one-on-one to understand their motives to commit crime.

It is vital to follow ethical guidelines so that participants are informed, safe, adn free to be honest without a researcher’s bias modifying the research results. Confidentiality is important when gathering data, even if the police request personal information from research participants. Researchers have to maintain value neutrality when presenting their findings.
Ethical guidelines were violated during the scientific research of the Milgram Experiment. There was no regard for the wellbeing of the subjects during or after the upsetting experiments.


#5

Question 1:
I am an English as an Additional Language teacher and, thus, very interested in racial equality in schools and education in Britain (I live in England.) The use of the students’ first language (not English) is often blocked by teachers and their English-speaking peers.

  1. Symbolic-interactionist theory could look at how individual students relate (talk) to each other (analysis of language). The English language, for instance, could be perceived as directly linked to academic success?
  2. Conflict theory: here, it’s quite easy to image this issue could be analysed through the prism of either social classes (working classes vs middle classes, for instance - most minority students belong to working classes on low incomes) or through the “hegemony of whiteness” and whiteness potentially linked to the ability to speak English language fluently in England.
  3. structural functionalism - here, there is the potential of looking at the students who would like to use their own language in school, not English, as “dysfunctional” - if society as a whole insists on the English language being used in school and beyond, these students might be seen as unfit to contribute to the biological societal whole.

Question 2
That person’s experience, for instance, intolerance experienced from others (in public or in a workplace) could be examined - perhaps by using a case study approach.

Question 3
Schools, particularly in terms of race and classes can be easily studied using Marx’s conflict theory ideas. For instance, the achievement of black and ethnic minority groups vs white community pupils can be analysed using his approach - in England, less than 30 professors at our universities are black. A story of a teacher who is also a refugee could be told using the symbolic-interactionist approach, and discussion of issues such as institutionalised racism could be conducted on the basis of this case study. The functional approach could be used in schools to discuss the opposition of the English government to allow the use of first languages in our schools (no bilingual programmes here!) as it’s considered a threat to the entire system - as is the fact that, despite there being over 20% of English as an Additional Language (EAL) students in the country’s schools, EAL is not deemed to be a subject.

Question 4
First of all, it is in violation of the current social laws, morality being one of them. If rules are violated, it is only very difficult to ensure reliability and generalisability as researchers do what they want, essentially. Similarly, skewing results to fit one’s agenda is unwelcome as all of us are influenced by our cultures, famillies, the way we were brought up and communities in which we grew up - if studies are to be reliable and of use to others (who might attribute different meanings to concepts), care needs to be taken that ethics guidelines are followed. I don’t know myself of a time when ethical guidelines were violated.


#6
  1. Structural functionalism being the way someone was made up could cause inequality due to the fact people are raised with traditions in a certain mind set and that could cause them as adults to act a particular way about a topic, people, or the way their lives are conducted. Also the way they interact with people from childhood to adult hood could persuade their minds to conduct themselves in ways and set their mind to how they treat people who are different and don’t live the way they do or have. As for conlict theory this is an excuse for people raised wealthy to feel like they are better than others with less meaning in their eyes. So if someone comes from riches and conducts themselves in high praise they are above someone who is poor hard working and meet moral standards.

  2. So eating disorders can be due to an individuals own morals and problems which affect their own lives. But another theory is the fact in society people are perceived to look a certain way and meet standards to the eye. So a women who is self conscious of herself for being too heavy or to slim may cause their minds to focus on not eating so they can gain approval of society and fit in.

  3. Understanding where people come from and how they are raised in society, perceived can help to know how they classify themselves in groups or careers in life. So someone who studies and is raised to be educated who typically belong to groups of high IQ are looked at as nerds, or people raised with athletics being social and looking for popularity can be viewed as jocks. This makes satistics of things simply easier to come about when you can relate the reasoning or theories of how someone is raised in society to the outcome of where they are in life.

  4. In order for research to be looked at as valid and true needs to be seen that the researcher is indeed truthful and has a respect and understanding of what they are trying to conclude. If your conducting research and want people to relate you have to be able to ask certain questions such as What moral principles guide your research?
    How do ethical issues influence your selection of a research problem.


#7

Question 1: Explain how each of the three major theoretical paradigms discussed in this section (structural functionalism, symbolic internationalism, and conflict theory) might be used in looking at the issue of inequality and share some examples.

(Respectively)

Inequality can be seen in major companies when all parts of the society aren’t working together. Say for instance more males are heading the departments rather than that of females. Looking at the situation from the Structural-Functionalism paradigm perspective we’d see that the women puts limitations on the level they should be working , basically settling. And working around others with this in mind and exuding it makes them feel like nothing is wrong with where you are in your work status.

Conflict Theory which is the way inequalities contribute to social differences and perpetuate differences in power would be a situation where major executives of a company vacation 24/7 rather than work and cutting down vacation time for the floor workers.

Sticking to your belief when it isn’t the deemed "norm is an example of symbolic interaction. The persons with a steady belief may be chastised for not going along with the others which is then unequal because no matter what your beliefs everyone should be treated the same.

Sociological Imagination enables us to think as the person we are studying and to use observations and personal experiences to receive understanding on their issue. Someone with an eating disorder could have just been on the quest to lose weight and ended up getting caught in a vicious weight-loss cycle. It’s almost impossible to see a problem with yourself when you feel like you have none especially when being skinny is highly coveted in magazines , newspapers, television and the likes of it.

The three sociological theories are beneficial because when studying various groups because if it gives us an understanding on the reasons they are doing something and makes it easier for us to study them. One may may be against abortion and from a conflict theory standpoint we’d study there culture background to gain insight and knowledge on why they are against it.
.
It is vital to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research so that participants feel not only safe but that an un-bias researcher isn’t going to modify the results. It’s important that the Researchers instil value neutrality and confidentiality while gathering data.
Ethical guidelines were violated during the scientific research of the Milligram Experiment there was no regard for the protection of the willing participants during and after the experiments.


#8
  1. These three major theoretical paradigms can be used to see inequality within communities from different social backgrounds
    Example A: How an ethnic male wouldn’t receive the job opportunity, but a white male would just because of their skin color and the “perceived” background.
    Example B: A white female can teach Her children about marijuana and the public would automatically deem it to be “cool”, “educational” and label Her a “great mom”, but if a black mother were to do the exact same thing and both mothers are on the same social status the black mother would be labeled by the public “Ghetto”, “terrible mother” stating things like: “They should take Her children away” or “She should be arrested”

To understand the experience of someone with an eating disorder, you would most likely have to study that person or group in their environment and see what or whom in their environment affects that person and brings out their eating disorder.


#9

Explain how each of the three major theoretical paradigms discussed in this section (structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory) might be used in looking at the issue of inequality and share some examples. The issue of inequality can be explained by structural functionalism by examining the disparities and unjust practices that are found in different aspects of a society. For instance, the passing of laws that seek to criminalize/and or disenfranchise the poor, while simultaneously working to aid the rich (Structural Functionalism). Another example is based on how people may communicate differently and treat others based on a person’s race, social class, religious beliefs, and political associations (Symbolic Interactionism). And lastly, (Conflict Theory) can also be used to explain inequality by examining both historical and modern conflicts involving a clash between people who hold power in a society (i.e. politicians, law enforcement, etc.) and the everyday people who have been subjected to the abuse of this power.

• Using the sociological imagination, how might one explain the personal trouble of experiencing an eating disorder? Sociological imagination can be used to understand a person affected by an eating disorder by looking at the bigger picture, or the different types of social factors that contributed to the person’s eating disorder. For example, a young woman may begin to feel self-conscious about her weight as a result of constantly being told that she should lose weight. Consequently, she develops a complex about her weight, eating habits, and eventually develops an eating disorder. By using the social imagination, one can begin to understand that the eating disorder is not an “individual phenomena”, but rather something that has developed as a result of social pressures and influences.

• How can sociological theories be beneficial when studying various groups or institutions within a society? Provide some examples which support your claims. Sociological theories can be beneficial when studying groups or institutions because these theories can help spread awareness about issues that a society may or may not be aware of. For example, a Native American reservation may be experiencing a consistent increase in the number of children that are not completing high school. This crisis may be attributed to a number of social factors that the community leaders may not be aware of. However, sociological theories combined with in-depth research can help reveal different solutions to address the issue.

• Why is it so vital to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research? Can you think of a time when ethical guidelines were violated during scientific research? Please share some examples. It is important to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research to avoid publishing research that contains biases, inaccuracies, and information that can be harmful to the population. An example of unethical research can be shown in the 1932 Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In this study, 400 poor African American men were promised treatment for bad blood. The treatment was never given to the men and they were not informed of the research design and its risks to them.


#10

The three major theoretical paradigms could be used to look at inequality by seeing how people from different socioeconomic backgrounds are treated in public schools, and seeing what police crimes have been seen between individuals of authority and civilians from different races.
Personal trouble of experiencing abuse would need to be examined through the eye of someone who has actually had experienced abuse of that type. You would need to study their interpersonal relationships.

Studying groups can definitely help with the study of various groups. You have to have variety to study them in the first place.

Ethical standards must be followed to ensure that all of the subjects are treated equal and fairly.


#11

1-
To look at the issue of inequality
for example if immigrant students are not treated the same as other students at
school.

a.
Structural functionalism may study
the policy of government for immigration and border control, how tolerant is
the society regarding immigration, or to what extent awareness exists regarding
immigration in education system.

b.
Critical theory my study Where
from and why the immigrants have taken refuge? How the inequality might affect
of future career of the immigrant students? How the government policy address
immigration matters.

c.
Symbolic interactionism may study
the ability of immigrants to communicate in English. The cultural contrasts
between the immigrants home country and the resettlement country like sport for
children ect.

2-
Sociological imagination is about
not being judgmental. The subject’s biography is important; they might have
experienced hardship during childhood or social intolerance for example. Eating
disorder may be because of personal moral or social obligations over which the
subject may not have had any control.

3-
In human society every aspect of
our lives are inter-related, and every social group relay on other groups to
some extent for survival, so we always study them in order to understand each
other and to communicate better. On the other hand the more holistic our
approach to study society the better we understand and likewise we can interact
better. Each of the sociological approach tends to study different angle and
different perspectives of social life.

4-
The main purpose of social
research is to shed light on unknown aspect of human society, and to do so it
needs to be pure and objective.


#12
  1. Firstly,inequality refers to the existance of an unfair or unequal distribution of opportunities to different people or a group in the society and in discussion relating to the three major sociological theoretical paradigms that is, structural functionalism,symbolic interactionism aand lastly conflict theory can be as follows;

STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM;
This theory has an assumption of all parts of the society to work together for the betterment of the whole society which in most cases impossible due to societies being characterised by corrupt politicians and business men who amass big wealth making those without such opportunities to remain yawning with nothing enslaved and deprived in their own societies hence imposibility of coperation of all parts of the society to work together for the betterment of the society.

SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM;
This looks at indivividual interaction within the society in different ways such as communication through a common language and others but different societies today are intermingled with class with both the learned for example proffessors doctors lawyersand many others who view themselves as people of high class and respectable social status and only speaking the common societal language can be seen as backwardness, due to this inequality they feel socialising with the peasants as a lower to their status hence a big gap between the two in the society.

CONFLICT THEORY;
This explains a war and competition among societal members for the scarce resources, with the existance of different un equal classes of people,the rich reaping much of the wealth and benefits at the expense of the poor. the rich experience high life and the poor work as labourers in the well to do firms with to much exploitation and very little pay.

  1. SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION can be the understanding of social out comes where the researcher puts himself in the shoes of the subject in order to excavate his troubles and experiences.this can be used to explain the personal trouble of experiencingan eating disorder basing on different factors such need to maintain size either slim for fashionista models in order to look attractive in different designer out fits to attract customers hence can not eat what is required of her or to maintain to much weight by body builders and wrestlers to look fierce to their opponents forcing them to eat to much to maintain that for the good of their jobs.

  2. Sociological theories can be beneficial in a way that co existance of different classes of people in the society that is the rich ,the poor ,learned and the illitrates motivates people to work hard so that they can also progress from one class to another for example the poor toil and struggle so hard so that they can also raise their statuses hence development of their society,this has been a common phenominon even in the present day societies.

  3. Its vital for sociologists to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research in order not to offend their subjects in any way for a peaceful completion of their tasks through being respectful to the subjects,asking reasonable quetions without provocative intentions and they must also be secretive to certain issues and data collected ,being neutral and truthful in their reporting.
    Differentances sociological research ethics have been violated through reporting falsely and sometimes basing on estimations for example the figures of the total number of refugees that entered Europe in the European Refugee crisis 2015 is always un clear today they report a different figure and tomorrow a different figure and one cannot know which is which.


#13
  1. Each of these three major paradigms has different levels of analysis. Therefore, it is better to say that it would be best to use these different kinds of approaches in various kinds of situations. For example in a Macro level, workplace, schools, and other establishments, we can use the conflict theory and the structural functionalism. These two focus on inequalities that contribute to social differences which then result to difference in power and how each of these functions as a whole. For example, racism in work and school, these two methods can show the large scale of racism, and why it’s widely spread. On the other hand, Symbolic interactionism would focus more on a qualitative research which will focus more on how the individual actually feels, because this kind of research in the micro level.

  2. Well he/she might feel ashamed at first or shy to tell on how she has this kind of disorder. But knowing he/she was able to get through it he/she would feel the empowerment to give other people with that kind of disorder a piece of advice on how to overcome it. He/she is the best example to give a word since he/she been through it he/she experienced the problems. Thus using the sociological imagination he/she can show the proper way to other people, because he/she learned from the past.

  3. Change is inevitable, we are at the 21th century already and things have changed pretty well. Institutions or group, with a certain vision to change the norms or protect the society like the PETA or the LGBTQ. Using sociological theory can help sociologist analyze what are the effects of these groups or their vision to the society. Like on how they feel, what is their driving force to pursue their claims. These are just some of the things that would be essential in scrutinizing these kinds of organizations. Everyone wants to be heard, to speak out there though, to fight for what they think what is right, all these are factors that affect the shaping of our current society.

  4. Do you know why there’s chaos in this world, it’s because people are selfish to look at things in other’s perspective. We fail to understand each other some time because we are enclosed by our desire, and not to think outside of the box. Being a sociologist means understanding how one individual feel or simply being neutral, weighing the pros and cons of the contention of each statement. You do not let your life perception affect your research. because you would simple violate the rules, it’s like intervening with the laws of physics. Let the majority speak out what they want, even if it means violating your perception in life. Compare and contrast, example you were given a research topic to interview a person. That person happens to negate all of your beliefs in life. Now think on why he thinks that way and compare. I’m not saying to change your belief and you need to know when and where to draw the line. In that way you as a sociologist or simply just as a human being would be able to understand and settle your differences. You are being NEUTRAL but at the same time you are also learning.


#14
  1. Structural Functionalism
    If society is like a complex machine in which all the parts work together so that it functions properly, it could be said that any faults in the function of the overall machine are a result of lack of maintenance of some of its parts - in other words, all parts of society need to be properly looked after and cared for in order for them to be able to complete their role in society and make it function correctly. This would support arguments that, for example, providing shelter to the homeless, training and opportunities to the jobless, etc., would help a society overcome a financial recession.
    Symbolic Interactionism
    As communication and language are the root of this approach, it could be applied by looking at what kinds of words media, for example, tend to use to describe different groups of people - men and women, for example, or black people and white people, or gay people and straight people - to see how this affects the way consumers of media view this people, and the effects this might have on the way they are treated.
    Conflict Theory
    This approach could be used to analyse how certain social structures are designed to benefit some groups and limit others. For example, in America school funds are often directed to schools in predominantly rich/white neighbourhoods - therefore children in poorer/black neighbourhoods get a lower quality of education, earn less money, are forced to remain in the poorer neighbourhood, and their children continue the cycle, while the white/rich children have the highest quality teaching and are given more opportunities. By comparison in England, the best education is often provided by private schools which charge high fees, creating the same kind of gap between the rich and the poor.

  2. The sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between a person’s behaviour and experience, and how that person’s perceptions and choices were influenced by the world around them. In this case, one might look at the kinds of bodies that are publicised positively and negatively in the person’s culture. If larger bodies tend to be the punchlines of jokes, or belong to “unattractive” characters, while slimmer, fitter or musclier bodies are the ones featured in desirable situations or shown to be attractive to others, it would be understandable for a person in that culture to strive for a slimmer, fitter or musclier body. However, because public portrayals of “desirable” bodies are often unrealistic (Photoshopped, etc.) it is likely that the person would find it impossible to match their physique to the one they feel they “should” have. This would be likely to cause a lot of frustration, and possibly self-hate, and more desperate measures to attempt to achieve the desired appearance.

  3. Sociological theories can be used to help advance the rights of those who are discriminated against on either a legal or social level - or both. For example, studies on the mental health of transgender people who are allowed access to treatments or accommodations that they want - be that hormones, surgery, unisex bathrooms, etc. - compared to those who aren’t, could be used to encourage corporations or governments to implement policies to aid transgender people’s access to such treatments and accommodations. Alternatively, studies into effectiveness of different teaching methods or class sizes, for example, could be used to give guidance to authorities on the best way to structure schooling.

  4. It is necessary to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research to make sure the results of the research are both valid and reliable, and to ensure the safety of the participants, so that the researcher can be sure they are not at risk of being a cause of injury to a participant. One major sociological experiment which has raised a lot of criticism for going against ethical guidelines is the Stanford Prison Experiment. Participants were not allowed to leave once the experiment had started, despite being told they would be able to, the researcher was unable to remain neutral due to having an active role in the activity of the experiment, and the experiment was allowed to get out of hand - in part due to the researcher being so involved in his role - to the point that some participants suffered physical or emotional trauma.


#15

Structural Functionalism
If society is like a complex machine in which all the parts work together so that it functions properly, it could be said that any faults in the function of the overall machine are a result of lack of maintenance of some of its parts - in other words, all parts of society need to be properly looked after and cared for in order for them to be able to complete their role in society and make it function correctly. This would support arguments that, for example, providing shelter to the homeless, training and opportunities to the jobless, etc., would help a society overcome a financial recession
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM;
This looks at indivividual interaction within the society in different ways such as communication through a common language and others but different societies today are intermingled with class with both the learned for example proffessors doctors lawyersand many others who view themselves as people of high class and respectable social status and only speaking the common societal language can be seen as backwardness, due to this inequality they feel socialising with the peasants as a lower to their status hence a big gap between the two in the society.
Conflict theory: here, it’s quite easy to image this issue could be analysed through the prism of either social classes (working classes vs middle classes, for instance - most minority students belong to working classes on low incomes) or through the “hegemony of whiteness” and whiteness potentially linked to the ability to speak English language fluently in England
2) According to Mills, sociological imagination exists when there is a relationship between and individual’s resent behaviors and past experiences. Patients with eating disorders tend to have issues with control. There is an underlying dissatisfaction and a feelings of loss of control. Starving, overeating or purging is a way to feel more in control of what happens in their life.
3) Sociological theories assist is exploring interactions between groups as well as the different sub groups that exist within larger groups of individuals. They serve to explain how cultures and communities evolve over time in order to fit the needs of the population. For example, there is increased awareness in gender equality. This is a result of an increase in education and literacy over time. Women’s issues have gained prominence and support over the decades. Sociological theories like symbolic interactionism showcase these success by how individual groups are communicating across gender lines in the 21st century.
4) Ethics in sociological research is necessary in order to uphold the integrity of the research as well as ensure unbiased results. Failure to uphold ethics in research can result in harm to animals or humans


#16
 Structural Functionalism

Inequality in relation to structural functionalism is recognizable when looking at a corporation that is hindered by envious employees. Structural functionalism tells us that society is similar to a machine in the sense that all parts are interwoven to work as a single unit; so if the employees are all trying in a negative manner to be in control everything, the overall performance of the company would decline from the narcissistic attitude portrayed. If the employees respect their position in the company regardless of who is in control, then performance and moral of the company would bloom beautifully.

 Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic interactionism can be seen in teenagers and their fondness of having the most expensive apparel. There are some children that can’t afford to have an extravagant wardrobe. The ones that can most times shun them for being “peasants”.

 Conflict Theory

The conflict theory can be utilized in war situations. Every time there is a war, the war is often times fought for some unavailable resource. As such the world is always in a chronostasis of conflict.

  Psychological Imagination

The psychological imagination is when you look at something from a point of view other than yours to evaluate the differing perspective. An individual with an eating disorder might not be able to eat certain products such as sugar. Their diet is then altered to provide sufficient food that is lacking in sugar. For someone who was able to eat sugar earlier in life, this may prove to be immensely challenging to overcome. Their attitude in life may become more depressed until they are able to handle the new lifestyle.

 Beneficial Attributes of Sociological Theories  

The sociological theories can be beneficial when one inquires about the culture of differing countries. In this knowledge you will find a more clear and precise understanding of how and why some foreign societies act. For example, Some Asian countries eat cats and other European countries don’t. In studying the Asian cuisine culture you find that Asians prefer cat and dog meat because the nutrients in them are adequate for a healthy body and metabolism. In knowing this European countries may still choose not to eat them from the bonding made in their own culture.

 Following Ethical Standards During Study

It is vital to maintain proper ethical guidelines when conducting sociological research so personal bias from either sides of study does not affect the outcome of the research. When the experiment is conducted the perspective of the individual or group may be altered by word choice and the knowledge given to them. An example of ethical violation can be seen in Luad Humphrey’s book “Tearoom Trade”. In Tearoom Trade Humphrey talks about homosexuals having intercourse in public bathrooms. However during his research he would observe people unaware of his presence and give personal bias on some of types of people he encountered. Thus a violation of the ethical guidelines.


#17
  1. The fact that people may have an unpopular religion that could make them view or participate in society differently that most do not agree with could be an example of structural functionalism in inequality.
    For a conflict theory this could cause a problem with getting a desired job or position in a workplace if co workers or employers feel one persons religion would harm or not benefit the business.
    With symbolic interactions, having an unpopular religion could cause difficulties with friendships in that persons community and could make them feel like they do not fit in with society.
  2. Eating disorders are mostly caused by a persons self body image due to society’s pressure to be thin and have a certain beauty. Someone with anorexia could feel like they are getting closer to becoming fit for society’s view of a perfect person, and could believe they are actually “healthy” or “beautiful”.
  3. Sociological theories are important when studying sciocety because it can help you explain how different individual people think and feel as well as explain scociety as a whole works. It can also help you test your findings and opinions to create a hypothesis about society.
  4. It is important to follow the ethical guidelines when researching as to not offend any individuals or take a bias opinion on your tests that could affect your overall research findings. It is important to remain neutral because the research is for the person or group you are testing and what they think or how they behave rather than what your own thoughts or behaviors.

#18

Explain how each of the three major theoretical paradigms discussed in this section (structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory) might be used in looking at the issue of inequality and share some examples.

Structural functionalism would be how a society as a whole will function or react to something. An example would be the election on a rural society.
Symbolic interactionism is used to compare people in a particular group. One example would be to compare a group of moms and how they care for their babies differently. This would be on a smaller scale than other paradigms.
Conflict theory is used to show how society is broken up and how different classes or groups benefit from others while they struggle. One example of conflict theory would be Farmers and migrant workers.

Using the sociological imagination, how might one explain the personal trouble of experiencing an eating disorder?

Sociological imagination is a theory that shows that your actions have to do with your past experiences. This could explain how someone who is called fat and made to have a very low self esteem as a child could grow up to have an eating disorder.

How can sociological theories be beneficial when studying various groups or institutions within a society? Provide some examples which support your claims.

Sociological theories can benefit understanding among specific groups and may assist and solving issues involving discrimination. They may also be used in assisting marketing products to consumers.

Why is it so vital to follow ethical standards and guidelines when conducting sociological research? Can you think of a time when ethical guidelines were violated during scientific research? Please share some examples.

Following ethical standards and guidelines ensures that the results of the research stay accurate. One example would be when conducting research about people are overweight and what they eat. It would be unethical for the research if you sent the recipients boxes of donuts every morning.


#19
  1. Structural functionalism - Inequality is caused by everyone not knowing what part of the society they play.
    Symbolic interactionism - Inequality is caused by broken relationships around the individuals in the society.
    Conflict theory - Inequality is caused by everyone fighting over the same resources.

  2. Eating disorders happen when negative symbolic interactionism happens in a society.

  3. Knowing the sociological theories can be used to help people understand each other better.

  4. It is vital to follow the ethical standards so that no one gets hurt.


#20

Structural Functionalism- Inequality is caused by not all societies don’t have the same education, religion,and economic values. Different areas of the world are raised with there own society values.
Conflict theory this cause a problem with understanding others values.
Symbolic Interactionism- Inequality is caused by the individuals not understanding the values interpreted.
having different values can cause a person to feel they don’t fit in a group or community.
Eating Disorder- Mostly caused by society pressure that being thin is beautiful. Negative Symbolic
interactions are a big part of eating disorders in society. Examples are magazines ,Tv, and beauty contest.
It is important to remain neutral, follow ethical guidelines. Make sure no one gets hurt, be bias so your
research does not have your behaviors or thoughts.