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SOC101: Unit 3 Discussion


#1
  1. Apply functionalist, conflict theory, and interactionist perspectives to social stratification. How are they different? Which one do YOU think is most beneficial when studying social stratification? Why?

  2. Explain the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Provide examples for each.

  3. Due to the current racial stratification in the U.S., how might race or ethnicity affect access to valuable resources like education or health care?

  4. What is the difference between sex and gender? How, as sociologists, might we explain the social construction of gender?

  5. Discuss various attitudes associated with sex and sexuality. How have these attitudes changed over the past several decades? Have we reached a point of equality? Provide some examples to support your argument.

  6. Regarding the elderly population in America, what are some special concerns this population is facing?

  7. What are the differences between the biological, social, and psychological changes associated with the aging process?


#2

Functionalism see stratification
more positively than conflict theory, functionalist try to explain that there
are positive outcomes that stem from stratification, for example hard work
should be rewarded more. Conflict theory however sees it as a result of
competition over resources that benefit high class groups who own the means of
production. Instractionism believes that members of different class develop
inter group solidarity and interact alike as a result of stratification.

Each of these theories has their
positive and negative aspects, but I believe symbolic instractionism serve the
present best, because it helps the process of socialization based on real time
information.


#3

Functionalists believe that systems exist in society for good reasons.
Conflict theory argues that stratification promotes inequality.
Interactionists look at how social standing affects people’s everyday interactions and how the concept of “social class” is constructed and maintained through everyday interactions.

I think that interactionism is most useful for studying social stratification because it closely examines the effects stratification has on individuals. Conflict theory is also useful because it acknowledges that stratification prevents some groups accessing certain resources. Combining the two could be useful for working out how to increase equality/reduce stratification.

Stereotypes: widespread assumptions about a group of people, e.g. men don’t cry, women can’t lift heavy things
Prejudice: making a judgement about a person based on a characteristic such as race, age, gender, etc. as a result of stereotypes, e.g. believing a trans person is dangerous to children
Discrimination: acting on prejudice, e.g. when airport security stop someone just because they look like they’re from the Middle-East.

Less funding is directed to schools in predominantly black neighbourhoods so the standard of education is lower.

Contrary to the explanation in the course textbook, many trans people and people who study gender now argue that, in Butlerian terms, “sex is already gender”, inasmuch as sex is as much a social construct as gender, and if someone’s gender is female then their body is female, because it is their body, regardless of what anatomical features, chromosomes or hormone levels they might have.

Gender is constructed through socialisation starting in early childhood. People are told what they can/should and can’t/shouldn’t do according to their gender.

Attitudes on sex and sexuality vary from the very conservative - abstinence-only education, sex negativity, homophobia - to the very liberal - everyone should be able to do whatever they want, provided all involved parties have given informed consent.
Over the last few decades, attitudes have been gradually shifting towards the more liberal end of the scale, e.g. more varied sex education, marriage equality laws.
We have not yet reached a point of equality as there is still a lot of homophobia, stigmatisation of women who have a lot of sex and of sex involving more than two people or certain kinks, etc.

They are increasingly likely to suffer poverty, and they are also at significant risk of abuse from caregivers.

Biological: greying hair, less skin elasticity, conditions such as arthritis, lower fitness and strength.
Social: needs are less considered by people in charge, likely to face ageism, some activities may no longer be accessible.
Psychological: conditions such as dementia and depression due to isolation, feeling left out, starting to feel less healthy.


#4
  1. A functionalist perspective on social stratification would look at the different social roles and their functions based on importance. The greater the importance the better the reward. More important jobs will be paid more based on how valuable it is to society. A conflict theorist would see this as an inequality. Upper class members with white collar jobs are paid more than the hard working middle to lower class members in blue collar jobs. Even if the blue collar workers are working harder, their job could be seen as less valuable and then be paid less. A symbolic interactionist would say that social stratification causes people to live, work, and associate with others like themselves. People who share their same income level, educational background, or racial background will socialize with each other. I believe the most beneficial perspective to use when studying social stratification is functionalism. It better classifies the different layers of social stratification and tries to explain the function they hold in society.
  2. A stereotype is a common distorted impression of any characteristic of a person or thing. Such as, race, ethnicity, age, gender or sexual orientation that can be either positive or negative. An example of a positive stereotype would be to say that all African Americans are great at basketball. A negative stereotype would be to say that women are not as strong as men. Prejudice is an idea or opinion you have that is not based on reason or experience. An act of prejudice would be if you were to lock your car doors once you see an African American walking by. Discrimination means to treat people differently based on their race, age, or sex. An example would be if an employer pays a female employee less than a male employee solely because of her gender.
  3. Because African Americans and Latinos are more likely to be in poverty, financially they may not be able to afford better education or better health care.
  4. A persons sex is based on the physical difference between females and males. Gender is a persons social and cultural reference of themselves. A sociologist would say that society and culture create gender roles and are set as ideal or accepted behavior for a person of that certain gender.
  5. There are usually either conservative views or liberal views on sex and sexuality. Conservative believe in heterosexuality only, whereas same sex marriage should be illegal. Liberals believe that anyone should be free to express any sexuality and support same sex marriage and homosexuality. In the past the U.S has been strictly conservative but over the years most states have now passed the law to allow same sex marriage. Equality in this sense has gradually become more excepted but there is still more improving to be done before we reach total equality.
  6. Because there will be an increase in the elderly population in the near future that require Social Security and Medicare, there will be a decrease in the younger working population which will cause a financial strain for Social Security and Medicare to be supported.
  7. As we get older we experience primary and secondary aging. Primary is the molecular and cellular changes in our bodies. The secondary occurs when we stop exercising and stop eating healthy diets. Socially some might find new groups of people and explore new activities to adapt to their new stage in life. Others often find it hard to adjust to aging and isolate themselves and eventually lose their sense is self-worth. Psychologically the elderly must embrace the integrity of their new stage in life and overcome their possible feeling of despair or any regrets they might have over their life if they feel they have not achieved certain goals that they had planned.

#5

Functionalist; believe that systems in society exist for good reasons. Like better pay for harder work done.
Conflict: theory argue that the stratification is an inequality.
Interventionist:look at how social groups interact alike as a result of stratification in everyday interactions.

Each theories has its positive and negative. I believe interactionism is a more positive reproach. It is more real time with the social class through everyday interactions.

Stereotypes: Positive or negative impression of a group of people,e.g. elderly drive bad and the younger drive better.
Prejudice: makes judgement on a persons characteristics such as race, age, gender. The elderly are not good drivers and should not drive.
Discrimination: acting on prejudice, e.g. when a police officer pulls someone over because of they’re race.

Due to the current racial stratification in the U.S. black neighborhoods have less funding directed to them so health care and education suffers.

Sex:is based on a persons physical differences between male and female.
Gender: is a persons social and cultural reference of themselves. Sociologist would say it started at childhood through socialization.

Conservative: believe in heterosexuality only.
Liberal:believe anyone should express any sexuality, marry same sex and homosexuality.
U.S. has been more conservative , but more states are passing laws for same sex marriage and new labels on bathrooms for transgenders.

The elderly population increase will be more likely suffering from poverty. The decrease in the younger working population may not support the social security and medicare.

Ageing process biological: graying hair, loss of skin elasticity, and lower strength .
Social: maybe placed in care of others. not able to do same activities
Psychological: Alzheimer ,isolation depression


#6
  1. Functionalism theory deals with more of the end result. The basis is that the work towards that society is worth more than the reward that the individual people receive. Conflict theory view it as a struggle over the resources and power. Where everyone wants to have the most resources and power. The interactionist perspective is that the social stratification happens because of the way people interact with each other. I think the most beneficial theory is the interactionist one. If we could descover why people socialize with each other in that type of manner, we might be able to change the social stratification.

  2. A stereotype is a widely held idea about a certain type of people. Like that white people can’t jump, all black people like watermelons, or that gingers have no souls. Prejudice is a biased without any real reason. For example, Muslims are terrorist and women are overemotional. Discrimination is when someone acts on the prejudice ideas. Like dismissing what women are saying because you think they are being overemotional.

  3. Because of the racial stratification, some races have more difficulties getting things like health care and education.

  4. Sex is the physical difference between female and man. Gender is the social role that they belong to. Sociologist believe that society creates social gender roles.


#7

Functionalist is a interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state balance and equilibrium for the whole. Conflict theory, is a theory that claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict, due to competition for limited resources. Interactionist perspectives, how individuals shape society and are shaped by society through meaning that arises in interactions. I believe when coming down to studying a certain social stratification its more beneficial to study interaction perspectives, because you can examine how individuals shape society.

stereotype is really common in our society. such as a thought about someone’s race, ethnicity, age, gender or sexual orientation that can be positive or negative. An example of somebody being stereotype is just because you are African-American in society eyes you play basketball. Prejudice, a preconceived opinion that is not based on reasons or actual experience. an prejudice act would be locking you doors at night before going to bed. Discrimination, the unjust treatment of people or things especially on the grounds of race, age or sex. An example of discrimination would be when they are treated different at work because of skin color.

African-Americans and Latinos are known for being in poverty, which makes it hard for them to have an education or healthcare like other ethnicity that can afford those resources. That results in a cycle of improvish african americans and latino’s to get out of poverty.

The difference between sex and gender, sex is biological describe as female or male base of your sex organs. Gender which can refer as social roles base on the sex of the person or personal identification of one’s own gender.

There are two main views on sexuality conservative views and liberal views. Conservative views are based on heterosexuality. Liberal views are based on equality and freedom to express ones sexuality. Over the past several decades the nation has switched from the majority being conservative to now being mostly liberal you can see this with same sex marriage. We have not yet reached the point of equality, you can see this in almost every part of our lives.

Due to the baby boom and the new technology people are living longer this is leaving us with a large elderly population. The number of elderly is going to cause a strain on medicare and social security, especially because of the increase in elderly and decrease in youth.

As we age every aspect of your life changes, you experience changes biologically, socially as well as psychological changes. On the biological level your body experiences primary and secondary aging, a molecular and cellular change and then a dietary and exercise change. When it comes to social changes you adjust based off of your location and mobility, this can lead to many elderly people being left isolated. Psychological changes occur with feels about not reaching the goals that you had created for yourself, adjusting to being an elderly person.


#8
  1. According to functionalists, as the Davis and Moore thesis states, social stratification is necessary to promote excellence, productivity, and efficiency, thus giving people something to strive for. Davis and Moore believed that the system serves society as a whole because it allows everyone to benefit to a certain extent. Whereas functionalists support social stratification, conflict theorists are deeply critical of social stratification, believing that it only benefits some people, and not all of society. According to conflict theorists, it is unjustifiable that some professions such as teachers earn much less than that of a basketball player or an actor/actress. An interactionist would examine the role that people play in their everyday’s lives that represents the society as a whole. People may take roles to show that they belong to a certain class in the society, including wearing expensive clothes or accessories. I think both functionalism and conflict theory are beneficial in studying social stratification. While functionalism may be beneficial in the sense that it helps to explain how society can improve itself for the benefit of all members, conflict theory is beneficial to identify the unjustifiable inequalities in society that contribute to unwanted stratification.
  2. Stereotypes are the oversimplified ideas about groups. For example “Europeans are very cultured people” is a stereotype. Prejudice is biased thought based on flawed assumptions about a group of people. For example some statements made by some American high authorities about foreignersl, including statements about Mexicans, where they state that “Mexicans that enter the US are criminals” is prejudicial. Discrimination is prejudiced action against a group of people. Racial profiling, where people are stopped by law enforcement only based on their race, is a good example of discrimination.
  3. Due to the fact that dominance of whites in the US institutions and decision making bodies is a phenomenon that has been deeply embedded in the American society for decades, as well as the fact that the US is being run basically by the functionalists, not least the new waves of power gaining by populists, I believe that access of the racial minorities to valuable resources would face even more challenges in the coming years.
  4. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, including both primary sex characteristics (the reproductive system) and secondary characteristics such as height and muscularity. Gender is a person’s deeply held internal perception of his or her gender. Social interactions that starts at a very early age with parents and family members and others, play an important role in determining and teaching children about the roles that they would play that would correspond their gender.
  5. For a long time, until some decades ago there were some fixed attitudes that were associated with each sex, that differed of course from one culture to another to some extent. In most cultures men were the ones that were supposed to be strong, dominant and work out of home. Women on the other hand were the ones who were supposed to be less strong, feminine, obedient, and (in addition to working out of home) work at home and take care of cooking, housekeeping and raising the children. Men’s and women’s clothing also were different in most of cultures. Industrialization and other events including world war 2, or freedom achieved because of moving towards modernism by many societies have deeply influenced the perception about sex and the attitudes associated with sex, to the extent that many of these attitudes are common in both sexes in some societies. Nevertheless, we have a long way to go to reach a point of equality. For example even in some of the most progressed nations in this respect, still the clothing that is expected from a woman to wear at work could be different from what is expected from a man. Some jobs are still not widely available to either women or men. Women are paid less than men, even when they perform similar tasks, etc.
  6. One of the serious challenges that the elderly population in America, like many other places in the world faces is poverty. As a population that is dependent on their pensions and savings, fluctuations in economy can seriously affect their situation. Ageism and prejudices and discrimination associated with it is another concern that most of the elderly have. Mistreatment and elder abuse are among some of the serious concerns of the elderly. Concerns such as losing social standing -which is prevailing in modern nations as a result of industrialization- can also have serious effects on the life of the elderly.
  7. Primary aging is age-related changes that happens based on biological factors such as molecular and cellular changes. These changes can be seen in the appearance of the people as they grow older. Declining physical energy and endurance, being more susceptible to illnesses and diseases, wrinkles on the skin, etc. are some of the signs of primary aging. Aging also brings about changes in the social life of the elderly. The elderly in most societies lose their paid-work and become dependent on their pension payments or the support of family. Due to this fact and other issues related to their aging such as death of spouse and friends and the consequent associated griefs, many of them experience disengagement and psychological pressures.

#9
  1. From a functionalist perspective social stratification is about understanding the different classes of a society and how their function affects the outcome of society. Conflict theory is about how social stratification is constantly in flux because the different levels of society are constantly at war with each other. From an interactionist perspective social stratification is about studying the individual lives of people and how social stratification affects all of that. They are different because they all study different sides. Interactionists want to see the personal side, conflict theory wants to see how the social arguments/fabric works between the different classes, and functionalism wants to look at how these both function in society. Honestly, I believe functionalism is the best because it looks at how the classes actually work in society, and how they interact with each other in order to form a functional society for all.
  2. A stereotype is something built off of a generalization of the group. For example, stereotyping that all athletes are only good at athletics and not scholarly is a stereotype. Even if it may be true, there plenty of exceptions to the rule. Prejudice is when you judge someone based on what group they are a part of. This would be assuming someone was an illegal immigrant just because they were Hispanic. Discrimination is when you take action against someone solely based on their race or gender. For example, when African-American and White children were separated for schooling in the southern USA earlier in the 20th century that was discrimination.
  3. Since those of minority races haven’t been given the same access to opportunities and/or started out much poorer it has been more difficult to climb up the societal ladder. Thus, it is harder to gain access to medicine and education when you don’t have as much money and/or social influence as other people do vying for those opportunities.
  4. Sex is your biology, gender is what you feel you are. The accepted social construct of gender has been only 2 for nearly all of time, and it was frowned upon to be anything but that. Now society is having to look at different ideas of gender, and how people’s feelings about their identity plays into this social reform in society.
  5. The accepted social construct of gender has been only 2 for nearly all of time, and it was frowned upon to be anything but that. Now society is having to look at different ideas of gender, and how people’s feelings about their identity plays into this social reform in society. It seems like we have not gotten to a point of full acceptance, but to the point of 50/50. When Beauty and the Beast announced Josh Gad’s LeFou was gay many people became excited, but a lot of people also decided to boycott the movie.
  6. This generation is facing multiple problems. One of them is that they have not been able to save that much money due to living expenses, but also because of the Great Recession. Additionally, thanks to modernization and industrialization the elderly are now broadly looked down upon in society. Finally, this generation is living longer, which is awesome, but it puts an even tighter squeeze on finances and they are often having to work even longer in order to fully retire.
  7. The biological changes of growing old are simply that stuff does not work or work as well anymore. Obviously, there is still medical care and you can solve some of these problems but your body is starting to break down at that point. Social changes with aging are that there aren’t as many people around that you know because so much is changing in old age. Additionally, it becomes harder to travel around to different events, there are health conditions, and you often can’t do some of the same events you did before. Finding new and different social groups is critical to living longer. Psychological change with aging is that people often fear death, and the closer they get to it the no more they become scared. Also, one must change their whole mindset on life because of aging since many things are different than before. For example, one has to worry about/needs help from relatives or qualified nurses. One has to figure out what will happen to their money and possessions when they die.

#10

functionalist believes that stratification is result of effort that person do in society the functional importance of social role the greater must be reward,the doctor or firefighter is more important than grocery store cashier.
conflict theory sees stratification due to uneven distribution of resources and a competition over these resources between bourgeoisie and proletariat.
interactionist think that people interact with others like themselves or the same social standing income level education extra
i believe functionalism theory is more important and beneficial when studying stratification cause it gives us a reasonable analytic of importance of social role that make the society works and functions.
2 stereotypes are generalization about a group can be based on race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation while prejudice refers to the believe ,thought,feelings and attitudes someone hold about a group discrimination in other hand is action against a group or people can be based on race,age,religion and other factors.
example of stereotypes like white people think that black people are lazy.
prejudice example like a white adult that do not like black people he has this feeling and attitude toward them.
discrimination like sexism in workplace against females.
3 race and ethnicity affect access to valuable resources like education or health care due to racial prejudice that formed through interactions between people of dominant group.
4 sex refers to physical and psychological deference between male and female while gender is a person’s internal perception of his or her gender.
5 attitudes associated with sex and sexuality are changed in last years now members in society they can accept extramarital relation, its very common nowadays to see this type of relationship,people are less religious now and they have more freedom than in the past they do not see it as deviant behavior.
6 elderly in usa are facing challenges such poverty, ageism, mistreatment or abuse.
7 with aging process biologically old people change, their hair become gray their skin not flexible anymore and they are not strong as they have been.
social roles are changed too they are burden in society they need more care they are nonproductive citizen.
psychologically some elderly people they can find a new activities hubbies but others they find difficulties to adapt new routines and loss of social roles.


#11

Apply functionalist, conflict theory, and interactionist perspectives to social stratification. How are they different? Which one do YOU think is most beneficial when studying social stratification? Why?

Functionalist: A functionalist views the categories designed by society as functional to it’s daily operation, and that the designation of certain roles as more important than others pushes those in less respected positions to work harder to earn more praise and prestige.

Conflict theory: Would view social stratification as a contributing factor to ongoing inequality in the world. Whereas a functionalist could view this inequality as motivational, conflict theorists are much more concerned with the persistent inequality.

Social Interactionist: Someone using this method of study would be concerned with how people use symbols and interactions to display or communicate their social standing. Where a functionalist would be interested in how a stereotypically “middle income” American suburban neighborhood exists within the large functions of society (creating jobs for home developers, increasing need for transportation etc) a symbolic functionalist would be more interested in how the residents of that neighborhood display their wealth or social standing by purchasing similar types of cars. (For example.) A conflict theorist would think about the fact that suburban American families being expected to have new cars is inherently unfair to the communities that do not have the resources or ability to afford such luxury.

I think that all these methods are important to understanding social stratification but I tend to lean towards the conflict theory as I believe that social inequality and the anger that comes from it is oftentimes the greatest motivator towards social progress and civil unrest that tends to define global history.
Explain the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Provide examples for each.
Stereotypes are oversimplified false assumptions made about a group of people based on almost any characteristic and can be positive or negative such as “Asians are bad drivers” (bad) or “Asians are smart” (positive but reinforces model minority ideas.) Both beliefs are stereotypes and stereotypes often influence prejudice.

Prejudice is when someone holds negative opinions of another group based upon false assumptions or stereotypes about another group of people, such as a prejudice against women where someone believes women are intellectually inferior to men. These opinions are based on presumptions about a group rather than experiences with that group.

Discrimination is when someone acts upon their prejudice towards a group or people. Discrimination can show up in nearly everywhere, including hiring practices that hire more white people than POC or more men than women etc.
Due to the current racial stratification in the U.S., how might race or ethnicity affect access to valuable resources like education or health care?

Race and ethnicity have a huge impact on these resources. When it comes to either, we can point to redlining as a major source of discrepancies between communities of color and white communities. This practice of directing white people to white neighborhoods and therefore away from black/latino ones, set up neighborhoods in ways that grouped ethnicities together. White neighborhoods, being more likely to be wealthy than their POC counterpart neighborhoods tended to have quality services brought to their community. Today, in education we see this in the “Ed Reform” movement where public schools in low income communities are being defunded in favor of “reform” schools that technically do better on tests than their public counterparts, but this is due to factors such as access to technology at home or parents that can financially afford to help with school work etc.

What is the difference between sex and gender? How, as sociologists, might we explain the social construction of gender?

Sex is a definition assigned to children and refers to physical or physiological differences between male and females, while gender is a persons deeply held internal perception of his or her gender. Gender is in essence, a performance, one that we do every day as we have been socialized to perform these gender roles for our entire existence. This is commonly referred to as the social construction of gender, meaning that there are no behaviors inherent to one gender or another, but that these behaviors and expectations have been taught to us. Children across the globe can recognize gender roles by age 2 or 3 and have already learned certain behaviors that are acceptable to their gender and ones that aren’t.

Discuss various attitudes associated with sex and sexuality. How have these attitudes changed over the past several decades? Have we reached a point of equality? Provide some examples to support your argument.
Being raised in a country like the United States that claims it is dedicated to equality while it actively discriminates against people of color, women, the elderly and the LGBTQ community, it is impossible to not notice the hypocrisy of such a belief. The USA is a heteronormative society that treats monogamous male/female couples as the norm and any relationship set up that does not meet those qualifications is an “other.” Attitudes have certainly changed, sometimes for the good and for the bad. The good can include the fact that gay marriage is now legal and it was not 10 years ago, and the bad can range from anywhere to straight women who collect gay men like social trophies because of the social status they may award her among her peer group to outright discrimination in the form of Trump’s ban on transgender people in the military. We have absolutely not reached full equality and “marriage” was not in any way the final frontier for the LGBTQ community to have equal rights with the straight community. Gay couples are still discriminated against in adoption cases, trans people are disproportionately victims of hate crimes and elderly LGBTQ people living in assisted care facilities report being fearful of elder abuse by their caretakers if they admit to lifelong loving relationships with same sex partners. We are moving in the right direction, but we are not there yet.

Regarding the elderly population in America, what are some special concerns this population is facing?
Boomers were for many years the largest generation on the planet and their obsessive consumption of cheap goods has left the rest of us in an economic quagmire we will likely not fix for many years. That being said, the elder population is facing many challenges and bonuses to their age that have either been prevalent to that demographic for centuries, or are new results of the modern world such as the decline of multi-generational families. Elder abuse exists in many forms and financially, those over the age of 65 are facing the potential of a decimated Social Security system they were likely counting on. Retirement ages have risen before and likely could and should again, considering life expectation has become much older than in recent generations. The medical advancements of treating this population has cyclical results where they are living better and longer, which is wonderful, but also creates an aging retired population taking from Social Security but not adding anything back in, which places undue strain on younger generations.
What are the differences between the biological, social, and psychological changes associated with the aging process?

Biological changes from the aging process are exactly that, they are biological and relate to your biology. An aging body deteriorates and loses muscle function, skin elasticity, flexibility and often times memory function. Women also lose the ability to procreate, which can have a severe emotional impact on women socialized to believe that youth, fertility and social relevance are dictated by their ability to become pregnant. Social changes can have many outcomes depending on how the elder in question deals with their age by either disengaging from their social group, becoming more engaged with activities than they previously were or committing to activities. The challenge of old age is to “embrace integrity over despair” and to find a way to adjust to your new role in society (in the US most closely associated with retirement.) Psychologically this can be dealt with in any number of ways, but is often associated with grief.


#12

Apply functionalist, conflict theory, and interactionist perspectives to social stratification. How are they different? Which one do YOU think is most beneficial when studying social stratification? Why?
Functionalists see social stratification as part of society that makes it work. Different groups of people purchase from different people, and produce different goods. Conflict theory sees social stratification as a struggle between ranks of people for resources and power. Interactionists analyze the micro level of how people interact within and between ranks. I believe that it is important to use all of these when studying social stratification to produce the fullest picture.

Explain the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Provide examples for each.
Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people that do not recognize individuality. E.g. All Asians are smart. Prejudice is an attitude about a group of people formed not by interactions with those people. E.g. A wealthy white person things blacks are violent because of the media. Discrimination are actions against groups of people for their characteristics. E.g. not allowing girls into sports camp

Due to the current racial stratification in the U.S., how might race or ethnicity affect access to valuable resources like education or health care?
Race and ethnicity influence what areas someone is born into. A person of color is more likely to be born in the poorer areas of Philly, and thus have access to lesser schools.

What is the difference between sex and gender? How, as sociologists, might we explain the social construction of gender?
Sex is biologically determined, and gender is someone’s deeply held identity. Sociologists might explain the social construction of gender by analyzing cultural expectations for people based on their sex. For example, skirts are seen as very feminine in America. However, this is a social construction as skirts are not inherently feminine. In other countries, such as Ireland and kilts, it is not seen as feminine to wear a skirt.

Discuss various attitudes associated with sex and sexuality. How have these attitudes changed over the past several decades? Have we reached a point of equality? Provide some examples to support your argument.
Attitudes about sex and sexuality have historically largely been influenced by religious institutions, but more recently have been influenced more by peers through social media. We by no means have reached a point of equality. In America, it is widely accepted for men to express their sexuality and sexual desires. Teenage boys and young men who watch obsessive amounts of porn are seen as just being guys, but if a young woman simply wears a fitting dress she is quickly labeled as a slut.

Regarding the elderly population in America, what are some special concerns this population is facing?
This population is struggling with who will take care of them when they are very old, as industrialization has made generalization homes much less common. The elderly population may be less comfortable using technology, leading them to be at a higher risk for being scammed.

What are the differences between the biological, social, and psychological changes associated with the aging process?
Biological aging involves things such as skin sagging, graying hair, and less-deep sleep cycles. Social changes include change of peer environment as a result of retirement and friends passing away. Psychological changes involve developing different perspectives on life as a result of years of experience.


#13

thanks