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SOC101: Unit 4 Discussion


#1
  1. Describe the differences between single parents, cohabitation, same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals. Who are some famous (or infamous) people that can be used as examples for each of these categories?

  2. What are some conclusions one can draw from the fact that there is a growing single population?

  3. Explain how Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim view religion. How are their views similar? How are they different?

  4. What are some manifest and latent functions of education? Provide examples.

  5. How would a conflict theorist evaluate education in American public schools? How might this affect factors contributing to the dropout rate for high school students?

  6. Define and differentiate between power, authority, and different types of authority. Provide examples.

  7. Describe the current United States’ workforce and the trend of polarization. What are some examples in which we are seeing these trends occur?


#2
  1.  Describe the differences between single parents, cohabitation,
    

same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals. Who are some famous (or infamous)
people that can be used as examples for each of these categories?

Single parents involve children; the parent either
male or female may be married before and divorced, widowed or even has not
married at all. Their marriage if applied could have been either same –sex or opposite
sex. Cohabitation means tow unmarried people living together involving sexual
relationship. They may to may not marry in the future, the motivation for cohabitation
is either to decrease living costs or maintain closer relationship. Same sex
couples may be known as married or not due to laws in each country, depending
on this they may or may not have the right to have children in their lives. And
unmarried individuals define those that lives alone they may or may not have
been married before.

  1.  What are some conclusions one can draw from the fact that there
    

is a growing single population?

There are other options available to be in a
relation beside marriage.

  1.  Define and differentiate between power, authority, and different
    

types of authority. Provide examples.

Power is the ability to exercise one’s will on
others. And authority is the acceptance of power. Traditional authority like
that of royal family of England, charismatic authority as Napoleon’s and rational
authority as police officer’s are type of authorities.


#3

Single parent: a parent who cares for their children on their own, e.g. Britney Spears
Cohabitation: when a couple lives together (with or without children) but is not married, e.g. Tim Burton and Helena Bonham Carter
Same-sex couples: couples made up of people who are both the same gender, may or may not be married, cohabiting or raising children, e.g. Elton John and David Furnish
Unmarried individuals: people who are not married and are not raising children, e.g. Emma Watson

Social norms are changing so that it is more acceptable to remain single, and people are taking the opportunity to focus on other areas of their lives first/instead

Durkheim believed religion encouraged social cohesion, while Marx believed religion was inseparable from capitalism and therefore promoted inequality. However, they both recognised the centrality of religion to society.

Manifest: teaching to read and write, teaching facts about science, history, geography, etc., teaching to work to deadlines, in groups and in a timetabled system, preparing youth for work
Latent: social skills, learning unofficial rules of things like courtship and making friends

Education in American public schools contributes to inequality because wealthier students have better access to resources outside of schools, and schools in wealthier (and whiter) areas tend to receive better funding and can, therefore, employ better teachers and provide better equipment and other resources.
Because they are not provided with the highest quality education, students in less-well-funded and lower quality schools may be more likely to drop out as they feel that they could receive better opportunities elsewhere, e.g. on-the-job training. Others may drop out because they are more likely to have commitments outside of school, e.g. contributing to household income, caring for siblings, which they are unable to balance with schoolwork.

Power: the ability to exercise one’s will over others
Authority: accepted power
Charismatic authority: authority inspired by an individual’s personality
Traditional authority: authority comes from long-held cultural traditions and customs
Legal-rational authority: authority is a result of the office the person holds - it is the office rather than the individual person which has authority

Just under a sixth of the US workforce is comprised of legal immigrants, and more and more women are joining the workforce, with better qualifications than before. The workforce is still recovering for the recession. The workforce is becoming more outsourced and automated, as well as polarised; the majority of job openings are at the highest and lowest levels, with few opportunities for those with mid-level qualifications.
Outsourcing can be seen in large company customer service: call centres are often in Asia or Eastern Europe
Automation can be seen in the auto industry, as well as many other factory-based industries


#4
  1. Single parents consist of either a father or a mother that takes care of his or her children. Sandra Bullock is an example of a single parent who his taking care of her two children by herself. Cohabitation is where a couple is living together but not married. Diane Kruger and Joshua Jackson both share a residence but are not married. Same sex couples are couple that are either both female or both male. Ellen Degeneres and Portia de Rossi are an example of a same sex couple. Unmarried individuals are usually just single people. There are a lot of unmarried celebrities but the most famous was George Clooney who, for a while, wanted to stay single until he eventually married Amal Alamuddin.
  2. The economy can be a major factor in the growing single population of the U.S. Being single means less spending and less financial responsibility.
  3. Émile Durkheim believed religion brings people together to promote behavior consistency and offers strength during life’s transitions and tragedies. He believed that the source of religion shows common values in a society and that these values need to be maintained to maintain social stability. Karl Marx believed religion reflects the social stratification of society and that it maintains inequality. He says religion was just an extension of working-class’s economic suffering. Both believed that religion was needed in society for its members to connect and share their beliefs and values. However, Durkheim believed that religion is needed to maintain society while Marx believed it to cause inequality between other members.
  4. Manifest functions are the ones that society intends institutions to have. While latent functions are the ones that are not intended, but come about. A manifest function in education would be for a school to socialize students to be well informed for the real world. A latent function in education would be the interactions between peers of certain rules that are followed but not intended.
  5. A conflict theorist believes that schools cause social inequalities due to the difference between class, gender, race, and ethnicity. They believe it pushes people of lower statuses into obedience. A major factor for the drop out rate of high schoolers is family economic needs. Students from lower socioeconomic status come from poorer families that need them to contribute financially to their family’s. Some students have to take on full time jobs to help keep their family afloat and are forced to push their education aside.
  6. Power is the ability to direct or influence the behavior of others the course of events. Authority is the ability to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience. There are different types of authority. Traditional, which could be patriarchy. Charismatic, like Martin Luther King, Jr. and Legal-Rational, such as the U.S presidency and Congress.
  7. An example of polarization in the workforce is the dispersion of wages between high and low paying jobs. White collar workers have jobs that are considered more important and are thus paid more. While blue collar workers are considered less skilled and then paid less. This is causing a gap between the two groups.

#5

Single parents is a mother or father of a child. Jonny Depp is a single father that shares the care of his children with his x wife.
Cohabitation is a couple living together in the same house hold as a couple that are not married.
same sex couple are two people of the same sex. can both be male or female . Elton John and David Furnish
have been a same sex couple for eight years and are planning on getting married.
Unmarried individuals is a is a single person. Oprah is a single person, her show was her love.

The growing single population is the result of not having to be married to cohabit ate and having a family.

Marx believed religion has inequalities and religion was just an extension of working classes economic
suffering, also was inseparable from capitalism.
Durkheim believed religion brought people together to promote common values. These values were needed to maintain social stability.
Both believed that religion brought people together to connect and share beliefs and values.

Manifest: teaching to read and writing, teaching the facts. teaching deadlines, working in groups and time line systems ,preparing for the working class.
Latent: learning social skills, dating and making friends.

Conflict theorist believe American education contributes to inequality the wealthier students have access to better resources and receive funding and hire better teachers.
Because they do not receive the better resources and lack of better teachers. the less funded students feeling of being left uneducated and forgotten. Others dropout to help contribute to the household income.

Power: the ability to exercise one’s will over others
Authority: accepted power
Charismatic authority: inspired by ones personality
Traditional authority: comes from long-held customs , values and cultural traditions
Legal-rational authority: is an office a person holds, the office not the individual holds the authority

Polarization in the workforce is the depression of wages of wages between high and low paying jobs.White
collar workers have that are more important and re paid more. Usually have better education.Blue collar workers are considered less educated work less skilled jobs and paid less. This is causing a gap in between the two groups. .


#6
  1. Describe the differences between single parents, cohabitation, same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals. Who are some famous (or infamous) people that can be used as examples for each of these categories?

Single parents are any humans that have a child, but no spouse. Cohabitation are any two people that live together, but aren’t married. Same sex couples are couples that of the same sex. Unmarried individuals are individuals that aren’t married.

  1. What are some conclusions one can draw from the fact that there is a growing single population?
    One conclusion that can be made is that people aren’t getting married as often as before.

  2. Explain how Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim view religion. How are their views similar? How are they different?
    Karl Marx viewed religion as something that promotes inequality and separation. Emile Durkheim view religion as something that keeps people together. Though they both believed that religion is needed in the society.

  3. What are some manifest and latent functions of education? Provide examples.
    Manifest education is structured learning like school. Latent education is unstructured learning like social norms.

  4. How would a conflict theorist evaluate education in American public schools? How might this affect factors contributing to the dropout rate for high school students?
    Conflict theorist evaluate education as a way that adds to the in equality gap. That creates a lot of tension between the students which can be a factor in the high school drop out rate.

  5. Define and differentiate between power, authority, and different types of authority.
    Power is the ability to use one’s will over others. Authority is a traditional use of power over others.


#7

1.single parents are parents that parent alone without other parent’s support,for cohabitation are couples that live together in same house but are not married,same sex couples are homosexual couples, unmarried individuals are single persons that they have never married
2.growing single population can be due to a several factors financial,social or just a lifestyle that does not necessarily include marriage.
3.for Emile Durkheim believe that religion bends people together, promote social consistency and people could find strength during life’tragedies Durkheim saw a religion as source of social stability,while Karl Marx believe that religion is an institution that helps and maintain social inequality there’s no similarity between Durkheim’s point of view about religion and Karl Marx’s perspective.
4.manifest function of education is socialization they teach student respect for authorities such respect that given to teachers,administrators and conformity to the law.
latent function include political and social integration,social network,group work.
5.conflict theory believes that educational system reinforce social inequality based on differences class gender race and ethnicity american African rarely finish their education and obtain their degree due to financial and social issues such as poverty,family disruption.
6.max Weber he said the power is the ability to exercise one’will over the others while authority refers to accepted power,there’s a different types of authority first one a traditional authority like monarch system,charismatic authority the leader has a charismatic personality such as martin Luther king,Gandhi
and rational-legal authority power made legitimate by laws written rules and regulations
7. 16 per cent of the usa work force comprised legal immigrant women also are joining to work force with high level of education and qualification after the big recession that began in 2008 the workforce in usa still recovering,the structure of job opportunity has polarized with more opportunity for those with high skills and high wages and those with low skills and low wage middle class job that requiring moderate level skills like autoworkers seems to disappear relative to those at the bottom requiring few skill level and to those at the top requiring high skill levels.


#8

Describe the differences between single parents, cohabitation, same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals. Who are some famous (or infamous) people that can be used as examples for each of these categories?

A single parent is someone who is parenting by themselves, an example would be a person who is by themselves and parenting a child, there are not many famous single parents. Likely because the rigors of raising a child and earning the income to do so is so time consuming that many of those people don’t have the time nor the energy to become famous or infamous based upon their parenting status. Cohabitation would be a couple engaged in a romantic and likely sexual relationship that are sharing the same domestic space and home. Typically this has meant only heterosexual couples such as Tim Robbins and Susan Sarandon, who live together and are a couple but are not married, but with the progression of our culture it can and should now also refer to homosexual couples who live together but are not married. Same sex couples are exactly that, they are a couple of people (two) who are engaged in a romantic relationship with each other, like Ellen Degeneres and her wife Portia Rossi. Unmarried people are people who are not married, infamously depicted via Carrie Bradshaw and other “single girl” tropes popular in romantic comedies.

What are some conclusions one can draw from the fact that there is a growing single population?
For generations, marriage has represented a lot of things to a lot of people such as stability, self worth or the ability to have a family. With cultural shifts happening all over the world and single people becoming more and more prevalent we can assume this is because either people both want to and have the ability to, remain single. The ability to remain single can be attributed to changing cultural values around marriage where years ago it was considered “strange” to be unmarried and 30 and today it is common and not considered deviant in any way. It also indicates increased and expanded financial independence for women, who stereotypically needed to marry in order to gain societal value and financial stability that they can now gain on their own in their careers that are helped by increased graduation rates among women.

Explain how Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim view religion. How are their views similar? How are they different?
Karl Marx was a fundamental thought leader of conflict theory, which states that society is in conflict and competition for resources and it is inherently unequal. He believed that religion exacerbated societal inequalities. Durkheim, one of the thought leaders of functionalism theory believed that religion serves a valuable role in the everyday function of society. Both of these men believed that religion encouraged and perpetuated certain social stratification, but while Durkheim viewed that as a positive function of society, Marx viewed it as inherently negative.

What are some manifest and latent functions of education? Provide examples.
Manifest functions of education include expanded job and financial opportunities, as well as socialization with peers and the absorption of facts and data. Manifest functions of education include getting a diploma and the increased social mobility that it allows. Latent functions are unspoken and or hidden functions and would include the creation of social networks and the idea of “courtship,” or learning how to flirt with, attract and interact with the gender you are most attracted to.

How would a conflict theorist evaluate education in American public schools? How might this affect factors contributing to the dropout rate for high school students?
A conflict theorist would be quick to point out the systemic inequality in a public school system funded by local property taxes that allow schools in wealthy communities to have significantly more resources than schools in communities where home values are low. These financial resources can impact students at numerous levels such as having substandard facilities to learn in and less access to modern technology, to even which teachers are hired by the district. Conflict theorists would also be outraged at the existence of charter schools, which pull resources from neighborhood schools that are likely already suffering in order to fund what the charters are doing with their carefully selected classes of students. Conflict theorists worry about “tracking” or the concept of placing students on particular “tracks” for learning such as advanced or low achieving where students encounter self-fulfilling prophecy issues. A high school student who has been told they are an underachiever will be more likely to actually become an underachiever because they will believe the label that has been assigned to them is true.

Define and differentiate between power, authority, and different types of authority. Provide examples.
Power is the ability to exercise ones will over another, while authority is the perceived power we agree to follow. For instance, if someone is racist but they have no authority in the world to actually exert power over and therefore harm a person of color, it is significantly less dangerous than someone who holds authority and has the same views. A racist regular person is significantly less dangerous to a person of color than a racist police officer for instance, because the officer has the authority to use their position of power to harm. There is traditional authority, which exists based upon long standing custom, for instance the Queen of England or another monarch in a country with a long line of the same royal family and respect for the traditions of monarchy. Charismatic authority comes from leaders who appeal to people with their dynamic personalities and personal qualities, they do not always necessarily hold governmental power at first, but often use their charisma to gain it such as Napoleon Bonaparte. A legal-rational authority is an accepted power that resides with an office, rather than with the person who holds the office such as the President of the United States.

Describe the current United States’ workforce and the trend of polarization. What are some examples in which we are seeing these trends occur?

The United States workforce is part of a postindustrial and informational society where power tends to reside with those who hold information. This has created a United States where polarization is high, as there are few jobs found in the middle of the economic spectrum which leads to jobs at the highest and lowest economic levels only and strongly reinforces our class system. While technically one can navigate between class systems, the gaps of polarization has made this harder and harder to do. We see these trends occur in the shifts between industries that need workers, such as healthcare, which is seeing a dramatic increase in need for qualified workers as the Baby Boomer generation ages and demand for healthcare services goes up.