Single parent: a parent who cares for their children on their own, e.g. Britney Spears
Cohabitation: when a couple lives together (with or without children) but is not married, e.g. Tim Burton and Helena Bonham Carter
Same-sex couples: couples made up of people who are both the same gender, may or may not be married, cohabiting or raising children, e.g. Elton John and David Furnish
Unmarried individuals: people who are not married and are not raising children, e.g. Emma Watson
Social norms are changing so that it is more acceptable to remain single, and people are taking the opportunity to focus on other areas of their lives first/instead
Durkheim believed religion encouraged social cohesion, while Marx believed religion was inseparable from capitalism and therefore promoted inequality. However, they both recognised the centrality of religion to society.
Manifest: teaching to read and write, teaching facts about science, history, geography, etc., teaching to work to deadlines, in groups and in a timetabled system, preparing youth for work
Latent: social skills, learning unofficial rules of things like courtship and making friends
Education in American public schools contributes to inequality because wealthier students have better access to resources outside of schools, and schools in wealthier (and whiter) areas tend to receive better funding and can, therefore, employ better teachers and provide better equipment and other resources.
Because they are not provided with the highest quality education, students in less-well-funded and lower quality schools may be more likely to drop out as they feel that they could receive better opportunities elsewhere, e.g. on-the-job training. Others may drop out because they are more likely to have commitments outside of school, e.g. contributing to household income, caring for siblings, which they are unable to balance with schoolwork.
Power: the ability to exercise one's will over others
Authority: accepted power
Charismatic authority: authority inspired by an individual's personality
Traditional authority: authority comes from long-held cultural traditions and customs
Legal-rational authority: authority is a result of the office the person holds - it is the office rather than the individual person which has authority
Just under a sixth of the US workforce is comprised of legal immigrants, and more and more women are joining the workforce, with better qualifications than before. The workforce is still recovering for the recession. The workforce is becoming more outsourced and automated, as well as polarised; the majority of job openings are at the highest and lowest levels, with few opportunities for those with mid-level qualifications.
Outsourcing can be seen in large company customer service: call centres are often in Asia or Eastern Europe
Automation can be seen in the auto industry, as well as many other factory-based industries