Compare and contrast the cultural meaning of illness, the social construction of illness, and the social construction of medical knowledge.
What are some disparities of health based on gender, socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity?
What are some real-world examples of environmental racism? Provide examples to support your answer.
Where do you think one would expect to find the greatest urban growth rate in the world?
What are some effects of migration from rural areas to urban centers in the United States?
Describe different forms of collective behavior. Provide some contemporary examples of these forms.
Explain how technology, social institutions, population, and the environment can bring about social change. Provide some examples.
- Our culture views illness in different ways. It decides what illnesses are considered stigmatized, a disability, and contestable and which are not. The social construction of an illness is determined by our own perception of it. Illness can change the way we see our lives. Some may see it as an end to their quality of life and some may see it as a new discovery of themselves. The social construction of medical knowledge can show and cause inequality in genders, socioeconomic class, race, and in ethnicity.
- And example of Gender inequality in health is that women usually have to pay higher insurance premiums than men. Another example is that some insurances do not cover contraceptives for women. Some developing countries may experience inequality when it comes to health because they do not have access to much needed medical services due to their financial struggle. African Americans experience higher mortality rates than their white counterparts. This can be an example of a health disparity of race and ethnicity.
- Minority groups are more likely to live near hazardous environments. This can cause major health problems for the locals. An example would be the Flint water crisis in Michigan where lead poisoning in the Flint river caused neurological damage to the locals.
- Tokyo, Japan has the highest rate of urbanization and population compared to the rest of the world.
- Rural to urban migration can cause children to have lower school enrollment since they are seeking jobs to support their families. It can also cause crowding in the urban areas and lead to social strain.
- There are three different types of collective behavior: crowd, mass and public. Crowds are large groups of people in a small area. There can be casual crowds, which are people who are together but don’t have anything on common like standing in line at a store checkout. Conventional crowds are people who come together for a regular, scheduled event like church. Expressive crowds are people that join together for a fundraiser or wedding to express mutual emotion. Acting crowds are people who join for a mutual cause such as a protest. A mass is a large group of individuals that all have a common interest but may not always be in the same area. Most examples of these are people that group together online. A public is a group of people that simple share ideas. Such as a political party.
- Technology can cause social change through advances. New technology has helped in the medical field to bring us new ways to help prolong life. Social institutions has caused family size to shrink due to more opportunities for more industrial jobs rather than running a farm. Population in poorer parts of the world can cause stress on the areas resources. The environment can be affected by the human population. An increase in populations makes for a higher risk of those being affected by natural disasters.
1 Our views on illness is sometimes stigmatized. Society dictates which are considered a disability and which are not. The construction of illness is our own perception of it. How we reveal the disease and cope with the illness. Long term illness can make you feel your world is smaller or it’s the end of quality of life.The social contraction of medical knowledge can reflect and produce inequalities in gender, class and race.
2 Gender inequality in health that women have to pay more in insurance premiums then men. Inequalities are experienced by some developing countries . They don’t have the access to medical care do to lack of medical resources and unable to pay for it. White males live longer then black males and the mortality rate is higher in blacks.
3 Monitory group neighborhoods are burdened with the hazards such as toxic waste, garbage dumps and other environmental pollution.Chester, PA. most of the population are African Americans living in poverty. Their small town is host too four toxic and waste treatment facilities. Chester has a high mortality, lung cancer and low-weight birth rate. The children have the highest concentration of lead in their bloodstream for the state of PA. .
4 Tokyo, Japan has the highest rate of urbanization and population
5 Migration from the the rural to the urban areas may cause problem with the inadequate housing, lack of room in schools. Some children may not attend school so they can work to help support family.Also contributes to traffic congestion and the need for more natural resources. causing a social strain on the urban area.
6 Crowd: fairly large number of people in a proximity. A crowd can be people attending a concert or sports event. Casual crowd: are people are people in the same place at the same time, but don’t really inter act. Like standing in line at a store. Conventional crowd:who come together for a scheduled event. like a church service. Expressive crowd: when people come together to express emotions, often a funeral. Acting crowd: focuses on a specific goal or event, such as a protest or riot.
Mass: a relatively large number of people with a common interest, they may not be in close proximity. such as players of an internet game like candy crush.
Public: an unorganized group of people who share ideals, such as the liberation party.
7 Technology: has many ways improved our lives,It has added automobiles,electricity and mass media. Media has made use more of a social society by the use of facebook or snap chat. Technology is the driving force of globalization. Medical technology allows use to live longer, which is putting a strain on the healthcare and resources. There is a digital- divide of those who can afford these technologies.
Different illnesses have different meanings depending on whether they are stigmatised or accepted, or whether or not people believe they are legitimate. This, in turn, leads to the social construction of illness, in which society shapes and is shaped by medical ideas. It also results in the social construction of medical knowledge, wherein cultural meanings associated with illnesses dictate how and if they are treated.
Different demographics have different experiences with health and healthcare. For example, women may be more likely to be diagnosed with personality disorders, while those of lower socioeconomic status may have more difficulty accessing healthcare, either as a result of the cost of the care itself, the cost of travelling to receive it, or the education level needed to find it.
The Dakota Access Pipeline is an example of environmental racism. The pipeline was diverted to avoid the homes of middle-class white residents due to concerns over water safety, but it was diverted through Native American land with no care for the importance of the natural water sources to the community.
One would probably expect to find the greatest urban growth in semi-peripheral, developing countries, which are transitioning from an agriculture-led economy to one led by factory production and information services.
Migration from rural areas to urban centres in the US can affect living space (more people in an area), property prices (higher demand) and a change in demographics, e.g. gentrification.
Collective behaviour is any noninstitutionalised activity in which several people voluntarily engage. It can happen in crowds, a mass or a public. Casual crowds are crowds who are engaging in a shared activity but aren’t really interacting, such as people sitting in a park on a warm day. Conventional crowds come together for a regularly scheduled activity, such as an exercise class. Expressive crowds are gathered to express emotion, such as attendees at a christening. Acting crowds have a specific goal or action, such as a group of people at a protest march.
Technology can bring about social change by changing the way we communicate and the time we spend doing certain activities. Social institutions can bring about social change by, for example, changing the accepted working hours, which in turn would change the way people manage their time. The population can bring about social change as sudden increases or decreases in population require societies to change the way they allocate resources. The environment can bring about social change as events such as extreme weather can suddenly change the situation of a society or population.
1.the cultural meaning of illness is relate it to our view to the illness and how we see that type of the illness some illnesses are stigmatized,the stigmatization of illness have a great effect on patient and kind of care she or he receives, our health care institution discriminate against certain type of disease,this view about certain illness may keep people from seeking help for their illness,the social construction of medical knowledge is socially constructed it can reflect and reproduce inequality in gender ,class,race and ethnicity.
2.we can see disparities based on race and ethnicity such as the average life expectancy for white males is higher than black males in USA the black Americans higher incidence of several diseases such as cancer,diabetes,racial inequality in care, African Americans, Indians received less healthcare than Caucasian.
we can also see disparities based on gender for example women are affected by access inequality and institutional sexism in health care industry.
our socioeconomic status play a large role in disparity in health, wealthy people have more healthcare than a poor people lower incidence of several disease.educated persons have more information about health and how to take care of it,so they follow a good lifestyle they exercise they eat healthy.
3.toxic waste, flooding, pollution from heavy industrial.
4.the greatest urban growth rate in the world we would expect it in postindustrial countries.
5.migration from rural to urban area can increase the rate of unemployment,poverty,high rate of crimes, overcrowding.
6.forms of collective behavior.casual crowd such as people standing in line at post office,conventional crowd people join together for a schedule event such as religious service,expressive crowd are people come together to express emotion like funeral;wedding,action crowd such as protesters manifestation they focus on specific goal or action.
social change can occurred due to several factors first technology the progression of technology has big effect on social change such as advances in medical technology allow infertile woman to bear a child advances in agriculture technology permit us to product a big quantity of food, genetically modified food.
population composition can change at every level of society, we all know infertility is increasing in some nations and decreasing in others, population can also change due to a random external forces such as an epidemic or shift in one social institution.
the environment and the people affect each other, the behavior of human being can lead to a big a change in environment and we see an increase number of people effected by natural disaster.