- Apply functionalist, conflict theory, and interactionist perspectives to social stratification. How are they different? Which one do YOU think is most beneficial when studying social stratification? Why?
The functionalist perspectives examins how different parts of society operates for society to function. A functionalist might view social stratification as the way society grow and change positively.
While Conflict theory sees social stratification as a way that few individuals benefit more from society resources than others, according to conflict theory, society comprises of different economic classes, upper, middle and lower of which people from lower-class struggles for survival.
Interactionist, on the other hand, looks to understand society by examining it at a micro-level. Interactionist seeks to understand social stratification from individuals or a small group. Interactionist believes that because of social stratification, people of the same class level are more connected with each other; for example, poor people might live in the same neighbourhood.
The three theoretical perspectives are different due to the way they view and explain how society operates from a different perspective.
I think conflict theory is most beneficial because it draws attention and creates awareness about inequality and what could be done to bring social change so everyone can have a fair share.
- Explain the differences between stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Provide examples for each.
A stereotype is a generalised perception toward a specific group without considering the individual differences. Stereotypes could be either negative or positive remarks, depend on the context. For example, black teenagers walk-in group of four to five, they are perceived as a gang, or Muslims are terrorists.
Prejudice is a negative thought, an assumption or opinions that someone has toward an individual or a specific group of people, For example, all migrants could be seen as uneducated because they came from third world countries.
Discrimination is an action against a particular group of people or individual due to their age, race, or religion. For example, someone could be denied employment by an employer due to his/her age. Discrimination could be vice-versa, but most of the time, it is done by the dominant group toward a minority group.
- Due to the current racial stratification in the U.S., how might race or ethnicity affect access to valuable resources like education or health care?
Due to racial inequality from the dominant group, subordinate group or people from particular ethnicity have limited capabilities or access better education or resources for their children to obtain proper knowledge which results in the cycling of the poverty from low-level class from generation to generation.
- What is the difference between sex and gender? How, as sociologists, might we explain the social construction of gender?
Sex refers to a substantial distinction between a male and a female, while gender refers to one behaviour and social status that society assigns for being a female or a male.
- Discuss various attitudes associated with sex and sexuality. How have these attitudes changed over the past several decades? Have we reached a point of equality? Provide some examples to support your argument.
For many years, there has been inequality stigma around one sex or sexuality. However, there has been a little improvement in some countries on how to view sex and sexuality. For example, seeing a same-sex couple holding hands or making out in public could be considered to be a deviance act whereas now in this contemporary society, people would not be surprised if they witness such. Some countries and even within the countries that have passed same-sex marriage, there is a majority that does not support same-sex marriage, and they would still look down on the same-sex couple. I believe we have not reached the equality stage yet, but there is progress. However, in saying that, some countries will not legalise or approve same-sex-marriage due to cultural perceptions.
- Regarding the elderly population in America, what are some special concerns this population is facing?
Due to modern industrialisation and style of living, the elderly are falling into poverty and lack of proper care. Young people who supposed to look after their elderly become too busy with work and life in general; the elderly lack adequate care like the way it uses to be in the olden days. Moreover, the elderly face abuse in care facilities by their carer due to their vulnerability and physical and mental decline and voicelessness.
- What are the differences between the biological, social, and psychological changes associated with the aging process?
A- Biological is a natural change that one has no control over. For example, the elderly person physical appearance, skins wrinkle, grey hair could be a sign of old age.
B- Social change is the way one social life or surrounding alter. An elderly person social life could change if they retire from work or their daily activities. An older person can not take on their everyday social life because they are physically unable to. Social change can affect an older person psychologically because they missed their colleague’s social surrounding.
C- Psychological change relates to how an older person percieved the ageing process and how it affects their mental capabilities — an older person mental start to decline as a result of old age.