1. Compare and contrast the cultural meaning of illness, the social construction of illness, and the social construction of medical knowledge.
Society and culture sometimes stigmatized and contested certain illnesses which can hinder how sick individual seek the right support. The social construction of illness is our way of perceiving the illness and the copping mechanism one develop to cope with the illness. The social construction of medical knowledge “is socially constructed” of which it displays and reproduce differences around race, gender, or ethnicity.
2. What are some disparities of health based on gender, socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity?
There are many disparities in the way individuals access treatments or inequitable distribution of healthcare among people according to gender, socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity. For example, most affluent people received better healthcare than people from a low economic class. Professor David R William posit that minority group faces implicit bias or unthink discrimination from healthcare provides.
3. What are some real-world examples of environmental racism? Provide examples to support your answer.
Environmental racism refers to the way minority groups are troubles with the number of environmental hazards which impacted their quality of life — for example, dumping of garbage and toxic waste facilities in the low-socioeconomic areas.
Toxic disputes and the rise of environmental justice in Australia: Mariann E Lloyd and Bell Lee [Published online 20 Nov 2013]
Mariann E Lloyd and Lee Bell’s case studies proved the unfair distribution of chemical risk as a failure to secure environmental fairness for all Australians.
Their finding was that the outer suburb of Perth in Western Australia was one place where residents faced both a hazardous waste dump and the nation’s most significant chemical fire. The Second Place was, in the Sydney suburb of Botany, where residents are confronted with the destruction of what is thought to be, the world’s largest stockpile of hazardous hexachlorobenzene (HCB) waste.
4. Where do you think one would expect to find the greatest urban growth rate in the world?
One would find a large number of urban growth rate in core nations or emerging industrialized nations. For example, Tokyo is one of the nations that is currently experiencing the most significant urban growth. People who are looking for better life opportunities like employment move from rural to urban areas.
5. What are some effects of migration from rural areas to urban centers in the United States?
The most impact of people moving from rural to urban areas is overcrowding in urban centers which lead to many disadvantages. For example, due to a large number of people seeking employment at the same time, people can experience a shortage of employment. Moreover, housing and food prices may rise, possible criminal acts and traffic congestions.
6. Describe different forms of collective behavior. Provide some contemporary examples of these forms.
Collective behaviour identified in three different ways, Crowds, Mass and Public.
1- A crowd is a high number of people who come together for a particular event — for example, the people who attend a show or a church service. There are many different forms — Casual crowds which consist of people who may be close to each other but not necessarily communicating with each other, such as people lining up at the supermarket check out. Conventional crowds are those that come for a programmed ceremony such as religious services. Expressive crowds are people who come together to express emotions such as funeral services.
Acting crowds are people that focus on a specific goal such as protester.
A mass is a significant number of people with common interests that are not close to each other, for example, online gamers.
The public is a group of likeminded people who share ideas such as a political party.
7. Explain how technology, social institutions, population, and the environment can bring about social change. Provide some examples.
Technology has many benefits in society as it makes particular things easier to manage. For
example, medical technology has made some diagnosis easier as well as prolonging lives. Since the revolution of the industrialization, hard manual jobs were replaced by machines in the agriculture industry, which made farming work a lot more manageable. The population increased or reduced in some countries due to medical technology.