- Describe the differences between single parents, cohabitation, same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals. Who are some famous (or infamous) people that can be used as examples for each of these categories?
- Single parents are parents that are raising a child or children by themself without a husband/wife or a partner that live with them in the same household.
- Cohabitation is when two people that are not married but in a sexual relationship live under the same household to get to know each other well before they married while raising [one partner or both] children.
- Same-sex couples are couples of the same gender that are in a romantic relationship. An Australian senate Penny Wong and her partner Sophia Allouache are an example of a same-sex couple.
- Unmarried individuals are people that are not yet married. Unmarried individuals make up nearly half of the world. Oprah Winfrey is one of the famous unmarried people.
2. What are some conclusions one can draw from the fact that there is a growing single population?
- In today contemporary societies, the stigma that was attached to being divorced or staying single in the fading away as the culture change. Many people would rather be by themself and still be happy if they are not happy in a relationship without fear of being judged by society.
3. Explain how Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim view religion. How are their views similar? How are they different?
- Karl Marx believes that religion help to keep social inequality among people of which poor people stay poor. While Durkheim views religion as a social institution that brings together people who share common beliefs. Durkheim believes that religion promotes society norms and values. Both thinkers ways of viewing religion are far from each other, of which Durkheim looks at religion as positive and Marx view it negatively.
4. What are some manifest and latent functions of education? Provide examples.
Manifest functions are institution intended or recognized purposes. For example, socialization with peers, learning how to read and write to gain better employment in the future, and educate the young generation for a better society. Latent functions are unintended or hidden purposes that are not noticed immediately, for example, peer group social network where few developed a long-lasting friendship or relationship.
5. How would a conflict theorist evaluate education in American public schools? How might this affect factors contributing to the dropout rate for high school students?
- Karl Mark asserted that society is full of inequality of which individual who has the power obtain more resources leaving disadvantaged people in a sequence of poverty. Conflict theorist believes that education reinforces inequality by pushing people from low socioeconomic further into poverty. Children from a low social class do not have the same opportunities as children from affluent families. A child from a low-class does not get the same level of educational outcome due to limited educational resources. When a child from a disadvantaged background falls into negative educational labelling, it generates self-doubt within of which they are not able to push themself to pursue further higher education. It is hard for a young person not to believe education labelling. They feel dull or unable to learn, which creates early school dropout.
6. Define and differentiate between power, Authority, and different types of Authority. Provide examples.
Power is the ability of an individual or a group to exercise their will on others or control their actions. For example, a group can plan to go on strike or protest for a pay rise or to voiced or demand for a particular change.
Authority is a recognized and accepted power that people agree to follow. For example, when a police officer signals an individual to stop, they can obey and stop, and when police issued a fine or a speeding ticket, individual do as commanded by an authority.
There are three types of authorities;
Traditional Authority which is the Authority that is given it legitimacy by custom. Under this Authority, people follow without questioning the rules because they have always been done that way within society. It rules are handed down from the past from leader to leader and generation to generation.
Charismatic Authority ; People follow the rules of this Authority because they are inspired by it one way or other. Under this Authority, people admire their leaders and never question any practices or commands because they like specific qualities about their leader.
Rational-legal Authority ; In this type of Authority, people elected their leader officially. He or she can work according to the system to follow the rules. The power is governed by written rules that a leader adheres to. Rational-legal Authority is practice in a democratic society where people understand and follow the laws.
7. Describe the current United States’ workforce and the trend of polarization. What are some examples in which we are seeing these trends occur?
There have always been various factors such as race, gender, or religion that prevents an individual or specific group from gaining employment in the United States way before the recession. Also, the fact that technology [automated self-checkout] is replacing workers is another big problem that reduced employment. Despite the job market steadily growing in the last few years in the United States, polarization has created an enormous gap among people within the job market. Some people get high to mid-range pay while others are on the lower end of the pay. There has been a high demand for both low and high pay jobs, but the Skills and education level that one have determined which category they fall on either high-mid pay or low pay end.